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Countries, Working Paper No.5/2008; UNU-EHS Work- Stern, Nicholas (2006): Stern Review on the Econom-
ing Paper Series. Bonn: United Nations University – In- ics of Climate Change,(
stitute for environment and Human Security. pendent_reviews/stern_review_economics_climate_
Afifi, Tamer (2009): Egyptian Water and Soil: A Cause change/stern_review_report.cfm).
for Migration and Security Threats?, NATO Science for UNHCR (Office of the United Nations High Commis-
Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, sioner for Refugees) (2002): A critical time for the envi-
Springer Netherlands, pp. 131-143. ronment, Refugees, No.127, Geneva.
Afifi, Tamer (2009) Egypt: Case Study Report for the
Environmental Change and Forced Migration Scenarios . Tamer Afifi, “The Impact of Environmental Problems
(EACH-FOR) Project, United Nations University Insti- on Migration: The Case of Egypt”, manuscript, paper pre-
tute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), sented at Environment, Forced Migration, and Social Vul-
Germany. nerability international conference, Bonn, October 9-11,
Hamza, Mohamed Ait, B. El Faskaoui and A. Fermin 2008, page 3.
(2009) Morokko: Case Study Report for the Environmen-
tal Change and Forced Migration Scenarios (EACH-FOR) 0. Otto Simonett and Philippe Rekacewicz, “Le delta du
Project, United Nations University Institute for Environ- Nil menace par les eaux”, Visions Cartographiques, Janu-
ment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Germany. ary 22 2008:
Almeria Statement (1994): The Almeria Statement Le-delta-du-Nil-menace-par-les-eaux#forum
on Desertification and Migration, Statement following
the International Symposium on Desertification and Mi- . Author’s notes from presentation of Ihab Shaalan dur-
grations, Almeria, 8-11 February, June 08 2009,(www. ing the workshop “Participatory Assessment of Environ- ment and Security issues in the Southern Mediterranean
1994AlmeriaSpain.pdf). Region”, MedSec, Barcelona, March 25-27 2009.
Boano, Camillo, R. Zetter and T. Morris (2008): Envi-
ronmentally Displaced People: Understanding Linkages . See the chapter on Egypt in CIA-The World Factbook:
between Environmental Change, Livelihoods and Forced
Migration, Refugee Studies Centre, Oxford Department factbook/geos/eg.html (accessed 9 April, 2009).
of International Development, University of Oxford.
Friends of the Earth (2007): A citizen’s guide to cli- . In September the world watched a dramatic spectacle
mate refugees, Friends of the Earth, Australia, (www. unfolding as thousands of would-be immigrants from all’s%20Guide_2007_small.pdf). over Africa charged barbed wire fences surrounding the
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Cres- Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla in a desperate attempt
cent Societies (2003): World Disasters Report: Focus on to enter Europe. In several incidents some immigrants were
Ethics in Aid, December, Geneva,( shot dead. In another, they were rounded up, put in trucks,
publicat/wdr2003). and shipped off and left in the desert with no food, water,
IPCC (2007):,Working Group II Contribution to the or shelter. These events highlight the growing need for the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth As- European Union to not only confront the issue of immigrant
sessment Report, Climate Change Impacts, Adaptation, human rights, but make it a priority. Extract from Peace and
Vulnerability (Summary for Policymakers, IPCC WGII Conflict Monitor;
Fourth Assessment Report). cfm?id_article=315 (accessed 10 June 2009)
Myers, Norman (2005): Environmental Refugees: An
Emergent Security Issue, Organisation for Security and . Different estimates put fall in oil consumption to be
Cooperation in Europe, ( around 10% as a result of the current economic crisis.
Nicholls, Robert J. (2004): Coastal flooding and wet- .
land loss in the 21st century: changes under the SRES
climate and socioeconomic scenarios, Global Environ- 6. Roman Kupchinsky, “Russia: Algeria Deal Revive
mental Change. Talks of Gas Cartel”, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty,
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