bitter and umami. The last of these, umami, was controversial until the discovery of a separate receptor that detected the savory taste which is referred to as umami. There is a detailed discussion of the sensors for these flavour receptors, their distribution in the mouth, and their inputs to the brain.

The author has included a detailed discussion of smell as a dual sense. The sensation is incomplete unless both orthonasal and retronasal perceptions are present. Shepherd concludes that retronasal smell plays a dominant role and deserves greater emphasis during wine evaluation. The final section deals with the brain’s ability to create pleasure from the integrated sensory inputs of wine; an overall sensory perception. One of the challenges of wine evaluations is to tease out the individual sensory inputs so that distinct wine qualities can be assessed and communicated. In a brief appendix, Shepherd discusses a wine tasting conducted by Jean-Claud Berrouet. For each sample, a small amount of wine was placed in a glass, the glass was swirled and the wine discarded, to avoid any possible carry-over from the glass. The protocol at first glance appeared to be the usual progress of sniff, slurp and spit . . . but with one exception. The wine was vigorously agitated and macerated in the mouth, ensuring that it fully covered all mouth surfaces and was fully warmed. A flavour burst was created that was swept into the retronasal passage with the next exhalation. It was an impressive means to amplify the information obtained from each sample. Here’s to your next flavour burst.


Looking Back By Wayne Wilson


am sure I’ve said it before in these columns, but it strikes me that while it may be true that every generation rewrites its is equally true that every generation remakes its landscape. So it is true in the Okanagan Valley as the burgeoning tree fruit industry gained steam shortly after 1900.

From the 1860s through the turn of the century, residential and commercial buildings were made of wood. In some cases they may have risen two or three storeys above the wooden sidewalks and dirt roads. From log cabin and houses to more substantial structures made from dimensional lumber, the entire Okanagan Valley’s settled landscape was made of wood. Between 1904 and 1914, tens of

thousands of acres of grazing land, grain fields and hay flats were subdivided into irrigated orchard lands of roughly 5 - 40 acre plots.

Along with this shift from extensive to intensive agriculture came a denser secondary road network, other transportation improvements, more businesses, and more economic opportunity.

As that shift gained momentum, the built landscape began to change, and especially noticeable was the rebuilding of many Okanagan towns’ downtown core. Wooden stores, warehouses and commercial buildings were torn down or moved, and in their place new structures were built. In many cases, those new buildings were made of brick and stone to reflect the more stable economic promise of the community. The photo here shows the remaking of those main streets in Kelowna with the construction of the Royal Bank on the northeast corner of Bernard Avenue and Mill Street near the lake. Still standing today, it reflects the economic shift brought to the region by the move to the new agricultural economy based on the tree fruit industry.

If you have photos of the region's orchard history, please contact the BC Orchard Industry Museum.

26 British Columbia FRUIT GROWER • Fall-Winter 2017

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