This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
Stanley Park was the first of many urban parks that helped preserve the urban forests that we prize today.

London”, “Green Here” and “SOVERDI” proclaiming the value of trees and bringing pockets of urban forest excellence into communities across the country. Canadian municipalities, universities and citizen groups continue to do very creative things in urban forest management, with many approaches borrowed from the United States and the European community. The Starting Point: Urban Parks

The creation of a national, urban park system figured

early in the thought process of the young Canada. The need to provide recreational opportunities to those living in the burgeoning urban areas coincided closely with the industrial revolution where society was confronting a new reality — the arrival of leisure time. Stanley Park was founded in Vancouver in 1886 on land

owned by the federal government. The 405 hectare forest- ed park has a fascinating history of park use, logging and natural storm activity. High Park (Toronto, established 1873) had its origins in

a gift from the estate of John George Howard, the city of Toronto’s first surveyor and engineer. The park is a mixture of exotic trees, cultural and educational facilities, gardens, playgrounds and a small zoo. Recently, prescribed burning has been used to restore the unique black oak savannah that comprises a large part of the park; not a simple task in the heart of the country’s largest city. Mount Royal Park in Montreal was created in 1876,

scaled down from a design by Frederick Olmstead, the pre-eminent American landscape architect who had creat- ed the plans for Central Park in New York many years before. Today it is a focal point of the city. An interesting history was the creation of the Battle-

fields Park better known as the “Plains of Abraham” in 1907 in Québec City. Timed to coincide with the 300th anniversary of the city, the 98-hectare park recognizes the battles which changed Canada’s regime and result- ing character from French to British. The park plan was completed by F.G. Todd, an American landscape architect

and disciple of Olmstead. Todd later went on to create plans for other Canadi-

an parks including Bowring Park in St. John’s, N.L. in 1914 and Point Pleasant Park, Halifax’s 75 hectare trea- sure which was created in 1866. Hurricane Juan in 2006 dramatically changed the character of the once-closed canopy and intact forest. Regional Urban Forest History

There is little doubt that Ontario has been a Canadian

leader in urban forests, partly due to its urbanized charac- ter, the 1960s Dutch elm disease crisis, individual achieve- ments and university support. Ontario planted American elm, silver and sugar maples along city streets in the late 1800s. The onslaught of DED changed Ontario cities and towns

dramatically. Erik Jorgensen arrived from Denmark as a forest pathologist for the federal government and joined the University of Toronto in 1959, beginning a concerted program to study and combat DED. He established the Shade Tree Research laboratory and in 1964 reached out to the community with the establishment in 1969 of the Ontario Shade Tree Council. This led to the teaching of the first urban forestry course

in Canada and the eventual development of Lignasan and root flare injections to treat DED. Jorgensen defined the term “urban forestry”. He was

supposed to lead a national urban forestry program in Ottawa, but the government and university’s priori- ties changed. He finished his career at the University of Guelph. His first master’s student, Bill Morsink, became the first

of a generation of “urban foresters”. Jorgensen also encour- aged a number of others who worked as urban foresters throughout Ontario (and Canada) including: Mike Allen (Winnipeg), Lloyd Burridge (Windsor), Bill Granger (Vancouver) and Bob Perkins (Oakville). Ian Nadar, who studied under Jorgensen, brought DED control to Ottawa through the National Capital Commission in the

Fall 2016 • 39

Photo by Ken Ludwick.

Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80