This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
tions are routinely conducted with a pilot-only crew during all flight profiles, like day and night- unaided, except for NVG. Military aviators accumulate

thousands of

NVG flight hours having only operated in a multi- crew environment while the civilian aviator coun- terpart may spend their entire career as the sole pilot on board an aircraft. When each is introduced to NVG flight, perception of challenges associat- ed with NVG usage may differ due to experience level and proficiency in crew concept. Additionally, the type of operation or flight task and the way in which they are conducted while using NVGs may differ from military to civil use. These fundamen- tal experience related differences may provide sub- jective variation(s) in opinion on the issue of pilot- only versus multi-crew NVG operations. The issue should not be one of “Who’s right,” but rather “What’s right.” As

the use of NVG technology increases

within civil aviation, the balance between imple- mentation and regulatory oversight is critical. Rules, policies, and guidance provided by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other regulato- ry bodies along with NVG implementation stan- dards by operators must be able to adapt to the new technologies of tomorrow. In addition, the regulations should also provide flexibility so the operator can decide how to best implement this technology into their operation.

PILOT-ONLY NVG OPERATIONS The FAA has accepted NVG technology

and any operator that has a night flying require- ment is a potential user. Many operators do not have the luxury of an additional crewmember on-

board nor is there a requirement to do so. NVGs would provide an enhanced measure of safety for these operators. For the most part, NVG operations are per-

missible with only the pilot using NVGs with the exception of flight operations below 300 feet above ground level (AGL). This is usually a Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) limitation of the aircraft(s) NVG lighting kit, but may include the operator’s Operating Specifications (OpSpec) as well. It is within this flight environment the FAA deems a second NVG equipped crewmember be required.

The flight training an NVG pilot receives is

typically not inclusive of an NVG equipped crewmember. NVG pilot training is often conduct- ed with only the pilot and instructor on-board the aircraft. The pilot will be taught to fly with NVGs and measured against a set of FAA standards applicable to the type of pilot certificate held. This flight training includes takeoff, landing, hovering and other operations below 300 feet AGL while using NVGs. The pilot must demonstrate the ability to conduct these maneuvers without assistance. Pilots conducting on-demand operations are

evaluated annually in accordance with the require- ments of the Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 135. If the pilot will utilize NVGs during these operations, a portion of the annual flight check will be conducted while using NVGs. This annual check will be conducted with the pilot only not requiring a second NVG crewmember. The pilot must demonstrate the ability to conduct these maneuvers without assistance. However, there is a difference between train-

ing for a task and conducting a task as a single pilot. Certain flight

profiles have a multi-crew

requirement. One such flight profile is hoist oper- ations. The pilot can train and be evaluated on air- craft control while in the hoist profile, but the hoist operation requires a crew. The complexity of cer- tain NVG flight profiles may not be prudent for pilot only operations. Limiting all NVG operations below 300 feet

AGL to multi-crew operators may be an extreme brush stroke of policy.

A limitation to pilot-only

NVG operations should have a practical relation- ship to the safety of flight. Many operators believe single-pilot landing

and takeoff from an un-improved landing site can be

conducted safely through risk management, training, and standards evaluation.


says “I don’t want or need a

crewmember’s assistance” may be shortsighted to the benefits in safety. Having a second set of eyes properly trained to support NVG flight operations may be the best possible solution. This is the position that many FAA personnel within the Rotorcraft Directorate have

taken on the issue.

However, the FAA did not exclude any particular flight environment from NVG operations and have developed policy within the STC process direct- ing a second set of eyes required only for near- the-ground NVG flight profiles below 300 feet AGL.

The use of NVG technology in flight oper-

ations came from the military. Through years of trial and error, the military developed NVG flight pro- cedures to include mandatory multi-crew require- ments for most of their operations. Logically, imple-

Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52