currently on the rise in the Betpak-dala population, directly targeting the horn for export to South-East Asia. Saiga populations are also affected by pasture degradation, disturbance, competition with livestock (especially in Mongolia) and the construction of barriers. Climate change is likely to become a significant threat in the future.
Opportunities for ecological networks The Medium-Term International Work Programme (2011–2015) under the Saiga MoU provides the building blocks for a functioning ecological network for Saiga Antelopes, starting with monitoring and identification of critical sites through to protected area designation and transboundary patrolling. The calving and rutting areas are particularly sensitive and need protection from disturbance, which could also be provided through seasonal protected areas. The full participation of local communities and creation of socio-economic incentives provide the backbone of the Work Programme.
Figure 12: Saiga antelope locations in Kazakhstan. 37