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was struggling, especially in Southern Africa, where the regional body, SADC, was finding the going extremely tough. Explaining why this was so, the Zim-


babwean minister said that foreign aid was one huge destabilising factor. A lot of Af- rican countries, she said, were dependent on foreign aid – in an average year their budgets are supported by donors to the tune of 40-60% (interestingly, “Zimbabwe receives no budgetary support,” she cared to add), so the African countries spend a great amount of time on bilateral issues with development partners, trying to be in their good books – but all this at the expense of the regional integration agenda. Te same goes for foreign direct invest-


ment (FDI). “We spend so much time trying to become islands of excellence to attract FDI into individual countries, so FDI becomes a fragmenting issue,” the Zimbabwean minister added. Foreign debt and the lack of regional


economic sovereignty are other “fragment- ing” factors that Misihairabwi-Mushonga mentioned. “Tere is the need to cede eco- nomic sovereignty to the regional blocs,” she advocated, and expressed sadness that while her home nation, Zimbabwe, had ceded its political sovereignty to SADC (as a result of the political crisis in 2008 and SADC’s insistence on a unity government), “people still do not understand and ap- preciate what has happened in Zimbabwe. Tey put Zimbabwe, Côte d’Ivoire and Egypt in one basket...To move forward, we need more capacity to ensure that we have a deeper analysis of the issues.” Te celebration attracted a high-quality


by the global financial crises, the ACBF members and donors lived up to their pledges, and moreover, the African mem- bers contributed a lot more in 2010 than during the Foundation’s entire history. In a rousing presentation on the second


day, Dr Lautier outlined what the Foun- dation would do going forward. Among others things, she said, this will include the strengthening of innovation on the continent, helping with regional integra- tion and food security issues, and invest- ing heavily in monitoring and statistics at national and regional levels. She urged the continent not only to


“think with our hearts, but also with our heads in order to bring back the confidence and the ‘can-do spirit’ we had in the 1960s. If we can get that right, one billion people with a common destiny, with as many cit- ies as Europe [600, she said], will be bigger than China.” A day before Dr Lautier’s admonition,


Priscilla Misihairabwi-Mushonga, Zim- babwe’s minister of regional integration and international cooperation, speaking under the theme “Africa at Fifty – aid, sovereignty and regional integration: Te miracle and the mirage”, told the partici- pants that regional integration in Africa


attendance from across Africa and be- yond, including the host president, Paul Kagame; former president, Tabo Mbeki (South Africa); Prime Minister Gilbert Houngbo (Togo), Prime Minister Raila Odinga (Kenya); Prime Minister Bernard Makuza (Rwanda), Prime Minister Paul Biyoghe Mba (Gabon); Ngozi Okonjo- Iweala, managing director of the World Bank; Donald Kaberuka, president of the African Development Bank, Abdoulie Janneh, executive secretary of the UN- ECA; finance ministers from Ghana (Dr Kwabena Duffour), Zimbabwe (Tendai Biti), Rwanda (John Rwangombwa); the ministers of planning of Kenya (Wycliffe Oparanya) and Togo (Dede Ekoue); and the minister of public service and labour of Rwanda (Anastase Murekezi).


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