Successive governments have, over the last 20 years, encouraged businesses of all sizes to off er their employees a stake in their success. T e concept of granting options is now widely accepted with the prospect of a future reward helping to ensure that staff or key employees have a clear motivation to remain with and grow the business. In any economic downturn, the impact on

the fi nancial performance and prospects of the business can signifi cantly reduce its value and the value of the share options held by employees. Where the depressed value is such that the options are ‘underwater’, namely where exercise price for the share option is less than the value of the share itself, or where the options are subject to performance conditions which are now hopelessly optimistic, the perceived benefi t of the options is at best heavily diluted. Many companies should then consider

modifying the share options to reflect the new circumstances to restore the perceived value. For some companies, the effect on their

valuation may be temporary. For others, the eff ect will be more permanent, whether by reason of a higher level of debt on its balance sheet or as a consequence of structural changes in their business sector which will need a new strategic approach. In the latter case, re-energising employees to

fully engage in the new strategy could be particularly important. Where share options do not have any tax-advantaged status, then a re-pricing of existing options, coupled perhaps with new options with performance conditions, is fairly straightforward to achieve.

Re-pricing of employee share options: grasp the opportunity

James Lawrence Partner

Hewitsons LLP For option schemes which do carry tax advantages, notably

Enterprise Management Incentives (EMI), re-pricing existing options to refl ect the reduced valuation of the company will result in the loss of the tax advantages. Accordingly, it will usually be achieved by the surrender of the existing options and the re-grant of new options at a lower exercise price. For EMI options, this will generally be permitted, provided that the

employee does not hold unexercised EMI options over shares with an unrestricted market value (when granted) of more than £250,000 and has not been granted EMI options over shares with a value of £250,000 in the previous three years (the three-year rule). It is not often that this is the case. If an employee holds options over shares with an unrestricted value of £249,999, then it is possible to surrender all of those options and re-grant new options up to that £250,000 limit. T is does not off end the three-year rule. T is can be particularly benefi cial for a key manager who has been

granted EMI options up to £249,999 and additionally holds non-EMI qualifying options. Where the value of the shares has diminished since the date the EMI options were granted, it should be possible to convert the non-qualifying options into EMI options. T e tax advantages would be signifi cant: under current rules (and

let’s keep our fi ngers crossed) any gain on EMI options would be taxed at 10%, whereas non-qualifying options are subject to income tax and NICs with a potential overall tax rate of close on 53%. A surrender and re-grant of options would also be

appropriate where a company with venture capital or other external investors is raising new equity at a reduced valuation to the previous funding round. Re- granting by reference to that reduced valuation would maintain the positive impact for employees. Where re-granting tax-advantaged options is not

feasible, then another possibility to consider is the issue of shares to key employees at a time when the market value of those shares will hopefully be at its lowest. Whilst in the current climate many employees

are content to be in work, it would be complacent to assume that something more attractive will not present itself, and leaving re-pricing to a later date when valuations are then on the rise would miss the window of opportunity.

James Lawrence is head of the corporate fi nance team in Cambridge and specialises in the design and implementation of employee share schemes. –

For more information visit ALL THINGS BUSINESS 37

Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60