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GLOBAL CITIES OF THE FUTURE METHODOLOGY


To create a shortlist for fDi’s Global Cities of the Future 2021/22, the fDi Intelligence division of the Financial Times collected data using the specialist online tools fDi Markets and fDi Benchmark. The list of 129 locations was drawn up to include the top 100 locations in terms of inward FDI projects on fDi Markets, plus any addi- tional locations in the top 15 as classed for each region, not in the original list of 100 locations. Data was then collected for these 129 locations under five categories: Economic Potential, Business Friend-


DATAPOINTS


ECONOMICPOTENTIAL • Population • Average annual population growth rate (2016-2020)


• Unemployment Rate • Inflation • GDP(PPP Current $) (Millions) • GDPper Capita (PPP Current $) • Average annual growth inGDP 2016-2020


• Average annual forecasted GDP growth (2020-24)


• Outward FDI (Sept 2015 - Sept 2020)


• Outward FDI per 100,000 people (Sept 2015 - Sept 2020)


• Inward FDI (Sept 2015 - Sept 2020)


• Inward FDI per 100,000 people (Sept 2015 - Sept 2020)


• FDI in Advanced Manufacturing (Sept 2015 - Sept 2020)


• FDI inR&DandDDT (Sept 2015 - Sept 2020)


• Number of mega projects by capex (over $100Mn) (Sept 2015 - Sept 2020) inc estimates


• Number of mega projects by capex (over $100Mn) per 100,000 people (Sept 2015 - Sept 2020) inc estimates


• Number of mega projects by jobs (over 1000 jobs) (Sept 2015 - Sept 2020) inc estimates


• Number of mega projects by jobs (over 1000 jobs) per 100,000 people (Sept 2015 - Sept 2020) inc estimates


• Noof Patents 2003-2019 • Noof Patents 2003-2019 per 100,000 people


HUMANCAPITAL ANDLIFESTYLE • Labour Force as%of population aged 15+


• UCHindex of essential service coverage


• Social Progress Index • Skillset of Graduates • Ease of finding skilled employees • Noof higher education institutions • Number of higher education institutions per 100,000 population


• Number of IB schools • Number of IB Schools per 100,000 population


• Number of Top 500 universities • Noof Students • Third Level Students as%of Population


• HDI • HumanCapital Index • Life expectancy • Ability to attract and retain talent


COST EFFECTIVENESS • Average salary ($) for unskilled worker


• Average salary ($) for semi-skilled worker


• Average salary ($) for skilledworker • Annual rent for prime GradeA office space ($ per m²)


• Annual rent for prime GradeA industrial space ($ per m²)


• 4*/5* hotel in city centre ($ per night)


• Minimum wage ($ permonth) • Cost of establishing a business (absolute value using GNI)


• Cost of registering a property (absolute value using GNI)


• Cost of construction permits (% of warehouse value)


• Petrol prices ($ per litre) • Cost of establishing an electricity connection (absolute value using GNI)


• Corporation tax rate (%) • VAT/ commonindirect tax rate (%) • Total tax rate,%of profit • Country PPP/exchange rate 2020


CONNECTIVITY • Cost for 1GB Data/USD • Download Speed (kb/s) • Percentage of people using the internet (%)


• Number of airports - within 50 miles of the city


• Number of international destinations served


• Number of ports (medium) • Number of ports (large) • Number of ports (very large) • Number of ports (medium+) • Liner shipping connectivity index (2020)


• Mobile Phone subscribers (2020) per 100


• Environmental Performance Index 2020


• Logistics Performance Index 2020 • Networked Readiness Index 2020 • Quality of overall infrastructure • Quality of roads • Quality of railroad infrastructure • Companies in transportation per 100,000 people


BUSINESS FRIENDLINESS • Total number of companies within high tech manufacturing sector 2020


• Total number of companies within high tech service sector 2020


• Total number of companies within the knowledge based sector 2020


• Proportion of companies within high tech manufacturing sector 2020 (%)


• Proportion of companies within high tech service sector 2020 (%)


• Proportion of companies within the knowledge based sector 2020 (%)


• Number of companies within high tech manufacturing sector per 100,000 population


• Number of companies within high tech service sector per 100,000 population


• Number of companies within the knowledge based sector per 100,000 population


• Number of jobs created by all inward FDI (2016-2020)


• Number of jobs created by all inward FDI (Jan 2016 - Dec 2020) per 100,000 population


• Number of expansion/co-location projects (2016-2020)


• Top 1000World Banks 2020 • Number of Fortune 500 companies


• Corporation tax rate (%) • Days taken to start a business • Hiring and Firing Index • Ease of doing business index 2020 • Index of Economic Freedom • Corruption Perception Index 2020 • Strength of Investor Protection Index


• Fragile States Index 2020 • Number of Fortune 500 projects (inward FDI)


February/March 2021 www.fDiIntelligence.com 37


liness, Human Capital and Lifestyle, Cost Effectiveness and Connectivity. Loca- tions scored up to a maxi- mum of 10 points for each datapoint, which were weighted by importance to the FDI decision-making process in order to compile both the subcategory rank- ings as well as the overall Global Cities of the Future 2021/22 ranking. In addition, surveys


were collected under a sixth category, FDI Strat- egy. This category is the only qualitative category, and fed into the overall results through bonus points for the leading


entries. For this category there were 44 submissions. These locations submitted details about their strategy for promoting FDI, and eachquestionwasawarded a score out of 10. This was done by a judging panel which was comprised of both internal fDi Intelli- gence members and exter- nal judges. The questions were weighted by impor- tance in order to achieve the final strategy results. The winners were


divided into four main cat- egories; Mega Cities, Major Cities, Large Cities and Mid- Sized/Small Cities. Any city with a population over 10


million was categorised as a Mega City. Any city with a population between 10 and five million, or with a pop- ulation above three million where the city received over 30% of the country’s inward FDI flows, was cate- gorised as a Major City. Any city with a population between five million and two million, or with a pop- ulation below two million where the city received over 30% of the country’s inward FDI flows, was cate- gorized as a large city. The Mid-Sized/Small category was comprised of cities with a population below two million.■


GLOBALOUTLOOK


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