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SPOTCHECKSAFETY


infinitesimal mass elements with individual distances from the centre of gravity. The integration of all different tipping moments over the full mass of the cargo item needs to be considered. Another proposal is to include the risk of


longitudinal tipping of the cargo – something that was classed as irrelevant when the annex was first issued. Increasing shipments of odd-shaped cargo items have led to this risk becoming more substantial, which means it should be taken into account. Other changes aim to remove ambiguity.


For example, the higher the stowage above the waterline of a vessel, the greater the longitudinal and transverse forces on the cargo. Annex 13 has an acceleration table to save time but the interpretation of ‘on deck, low’ and ‘on deck, high’ can vary. In order to remove the ambiguity, formulas should be used that have the actual centre of gravity of the cargo relative to the transport vessel as the input. Clarity is also being sought for wind


moment in tipping balance calculations. For large cargoes on an open deck, wind pushes on the cargo generating forces that are calculated with a point of engagement. Annex 13 says the point of engagement is on the centre of gravity. However, depending on the shape of the cargo, it is possible that the point of engagement is much higher than this. To rule out any room for miscalculations, the proposal states that, for large cargo on deck, the forces generated by wind should be calculated on the centre of wind attack.


Securing arrangements There are two types of securing arrangements: flexible ones like fibre belts or chains, and rigid arrangements like welded stoppers. A proposed change is that for forces in one direction, only one type of securing arrangement should be allowed. This proposal has been put forward


because the securing arrangements have their own characteristics. Flexible securing tends to elongate under load, typically by between 1-3 percent depending on the securement. If the two types of arrangements are used in combination, the complete load will end up being supported by the rigid securements. For example, the load is 30 tonnes in a


random direction. This is secured by one 20-tonne capacity welded stopper and two fibre belts, each with a maximum load of 5 tonnes, which combined totals a ‘stopping force’ of 30 tonnes. However, in practice, the rigid stopper will take the entire load due to the elongating characteristics of the flexible securing. This results in a welded


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The possible reduction models for weather-dependent load assumptions.


Additional tipping moment due to the rotational inertia.


stopper designed for 20 tonnes being loaded with 30 tonnes – an insufficient securing arrangement, and one that is allowed under Annex 13. For exceptional cargo, Roll Group


suggests a move away from Annex 13 and instead a move toward DNV GL-ST-N001


Roll Group suggests a move away from Annex 13 and instead a move toward DNV GL-ST-N001 Marine Operations and Marine Warranty Standard, which is suitable for large cargo items and only requires changes that can be implemented quickly.


Marine Operations and Marine Warranty Standard, which is suitable for large cargo items and only requires changes that can be implemented quickly.


Developing guidelines Cargo owners should also be aware of the requirements that come with the transport of exceptional cargo and ensure the cargoes are suitable for transport over land and sea. Roll Group is therefore providing advice to the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) for the development of a set of guidelines for the design of modules, focusing on the important steps in their transport.


HLPFI


The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.


January/February 2020 75


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