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GEO-6 Regional Assessment for North America


List of Boxes Box 2.2.1: US ownership patterns for forested lands and fragmentation Box 2.4.1: Great Lakes water quality index scores in Canada, 2014


Box 2.4.2: Insufficient amounts of water affect ecosystem functions in Canada Box 2.4.3: The case of Flint, Michigan Box 2.6.1:


Experimental Lakes Area Box 2.7.1: Opening of a seaway


Box 2.7.2: Issues affecting the health and well-being of peoples of the Arctic, especially indigenous and isolated communities


Box 2.7.3: Engaging tribal governments and indigenous peoples in Canada and the US Box 2.7.4: Embracing traditional ecological knowledge into science Box 2.8.1: Urban complex in the eye of a storm


Box 2.8.2: Mountain pine beetle outbreaks: natural selection for climate change adaptation? Box 2.9.1: The resource pyramid concept Box 2.9.2: Exploiting Arctic fossil fuel resources Box 2.9.3: Oil sands exploitation in North America Box 2.9.4: Generational changes in energy use Box 3.2.1:


Climate and Clean Air Coalition Box 3.2.2: Montréal process working group


Box 3.2.3: Integrated water resources management: adaptive governance in conservation Box 3.2.4: Fracking: emerging citizen science, data gathering, and responses Box 3.2.5: Renewable energy and North American cities Box 3.3.1: Key features of adaptive governance


50 73 83 91


112 127


128 129 131 136 138 144 147 148 153 165 169 177 195 198 209


Box 3.3.2: Washington State protects shellfish in Samish Bay by adopting new approaches to governance 210 Box 3.3.3: Indigenous rights and bituminous sands development Box 3.3.4: Commission on Environmental Cooperation Box 3.3.5: British Columbia revenue neutral carbon tax


Box 3.3.6: Climate data initiative launches with strong public and private sector commitments Box 3.3.7: LEO Network – using technology to share environmental observations Box 3.3.8: Cities turn a corner in responding to climate change Box 3.3.9: Portland’s leadership in reducing carbon emissions Box 3.3.10:


City Governments Cooperating for Sustainability


Box 4.2.2: Scenarios – Digital economy and networks society in Canada Box 4.3.1: US EPA’s 10 critical actions to conserve water


213 214 215 220 223 224 226 227


Box 4.1.1: Potential emission reduction in energy production, OECD countries with focus on North America 238 Box 4.2.1: Nanotechnology and the environment


Box 4.4.1: Relevance of SDG 12 on sustainable consumption and production for North America Box 4.5.1: Examples of long-term well-established citizens-based monitoring systems in North America 268


245 250 255 260


List of links for North America Chapter 2


Link 2.1.1: National ambient levels of ozone http://www.ec.gc.ca/indicateurs-indicators/default.asp?lang=en&n=9EBBCA88-1#01 Link 2.1.2 Ambient Levels of Fine Particulate Matter


312


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