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ENERGY MANAGEMENT


Table 1: Internal and external benchmark (values from 2015 and 1996). 2015


Building description


Average value Average value Average value


Year Building description


2015 AKH building average value 2015 AKH building average value 2015 AKH building average value 2015 BT41 car park


2015 Total/average value AKH total


2015 Total/average value excl. BT41 car park 1996 AKH overall average value 2011


International average value


VK TK OK OK


VK TK OK


Floor area m2


71.47% 11.42% 8.85%


Electric energy kWh/m2


203.77 46.22 41.70


Floor area %


71.47% 11.42% 8.85% 8.26%


Consumption and costs per year District heating kWh/m2


245.91 107.17


103.38


Consumption per year Electric energy kWh/m2


232.45 53.70 43.75 21.74


178.01 incl. cooling 192.09 incl. cooling 214.97 incl. cooling 100.00


VK: Fully air conditioned; TK: Part air conditioned; OK: No air conditioning and buildings with fan coils


ventilators distribute the air and feed it into about 12,100 follow-up-treatment systems for fine-treatment before it is blown into the rooms through about 13,000 ceiling air distributors. Approximately 13,000 fire dampers are integrated in the distribution network.


Energy & drinking water consumption (2015) l Electricity - approx. 154,900 MWh l Natural gas - approx. 35,600 MWh l District heating - approx. 182,000 MWh l Drinking water - approx. 746,400 m l Drinking water incl. deep well - approx. 869,700 m


l Sterile steam - approx. 32,200 t l Cooling - approx. 79,700 MWh


Input data for energy monitoring Ongoing recording of operating conditions in the building control system (BCS) forms the basis for all analyses in the context of energy monitoring. The BCS consists of 78,266 data points


(excluding the fire protection systems), more than 3,500 of which are directly relevant for energy management (about 2,100 energy and drinking water meters and about 1,500 measured values and condition read-outs for electric energy, air volume, temperature, humidity, pressure, flow rates, steam quantities etc). A small part of these are meters from suppliers used for invoicing. The meter data is also the basis for the ‘confirmation of services rendered’ for energy invoices.


Processing and evaluation of monitoring data Daily: Fault detection through exceedance of limit values and daily value graph for electric energy supply.


IFHE DIGEST 2017


Weekly: Analysis of top-consumers (primarily air conditioning). Monthly: Analysis of cost forecast for energy media, 38 buildings (and groups of them) and display in the media manual, consumption analysis of tenants, media consumption kitchen, emergency energy production, adjustment of data for climatic influences. Quarterly: Analysis controlling report energy, tenants’ consumption. Annually: Analysis of media manual, including building energy use benchmarks and segmentation of consumption according to type of air conditioning, (see Table 1) energy report including display of implemented optimisations in their sustainable effect.


Identifying optimisation potentials Early recognition of operational disruptions, ongoing optimisation of (air conditioning) control software and deduction of building energy use benchmarks from recorded data including segmentation of consumption according to type of air conditioning form a combined image, which allows for detection of clinical departments where


€61.4 m could be saved between 1996 and 2015 through energy saving measures when subtracting the costs of investment


optimisations could have positive effects on energy efficiency. The energy consumption (electrical


energy, heating, humidification and cooling of room air) of the areas without air conditioning shows a value of around 150 kWh/m2


in the Vienna building-


benchmark in 1996. The value for areas with air conditioning was at around 670 kWh/m2


, which is roughly four times


the amount. The focus for measures to save energy was therefore on re- dimensioning the air streams. They were assessed for their actual usage and optimisation possibilities during times of low loads or outside of operating hours. Numerous optimisation measures have


been implemented since 1998 as part of the self-imposed energy efficiency programme of Vienna and VAMED-KMB. Because projects are prioritised according to their energy saving potential, the majority of projects that are implemented as part of the energy efficiency program are related to air conditioning. The implemented energy saving projects allowed for a reduction not only of costs but also of the specific energy consumption per m2 480 kWh/m2


from 670 kWh/m2 to in the main focus area ‘fully


air conditioned area.’ Savings that resulted from optimisation


learnings from the monitoring of energy and drinking water consumption as well as the implementation of BCS control software are also substantial.


Energy saving projects 1996-2016 Table 2 shows a chronologic list of the numerous projects that were implemented as part of the energy efficiency programme. Projects marked with an asterisk are ‘re-engineering projects’ that could be


67


Drinking water m3


/m2 1.19


0.47 0.45


District heating kWh/m2


245.91 107.17


103.38 0.40 197.21


214.94 297.80 270.00


Cooling energy kWh/m2


114.73 29.92 8.20


Drinking water m3


/m2 1.19


0.47 0.45 0.10 0.95 1.03 1.77 1.40


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