search.noResults

search.searching

note.createNoteMessage

search.noResults

search.searching

orderForm.title

orderForm.productCode
orderForm.description
orderForm.quantity
orderForm.itemPrice
orderForm.price
orderForm.totalPrice
orderForm.deliveryDetails.billingAddress
orderForm.deliveryDetails.deliveryAddress
orderForm.noItems
SUSTAINABILITY TROY SAVAGE, WALT VERNON – MAZZETTI


Greenhouse gas: global healthcare inventory


This paper proposes a new data-gathering framework to improve the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate of the impact of greenhouse gases. The new framework will be undertaken by the International Federation of Hospital Engineers.


Healthcare constitutes a significant portion of human activity and of the global economy. It is, therefore, both a significant generator of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and a potential leader in reducing emissions. The WHO is currently finalising a book,


Health in the Green Economy, detailing actions the global healthcare sector should take to combat climate change while simultaneously producing health co-benefits. An Annex to this attempts to generate an estimate for GHG impact of the global health sector, using sketchy available data and large extrapolations. That work concludes with the observation that much more data is needed. The WHO’s initial estimates suggest the healthcare sector contributes 2.8% of total global GHG emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on


Climate Change synthesises scientific opinion expressing both an evaluation of underlying scientific understanding and level of confidence in that science. The findings in its fifth assessment report are clear. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal. Greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2


), methane (CH4 oxide (N2 ), nitrous O) and others,


trap heat within earth’s atmosphere, warming the planet. Human influence on the climate system is also clear, and it is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid- 20th century. The atmosphere and ocean have warmed, the amounts of snow and ice have diminished, sea level has risen and GHG gas concentrations have increased. Unabated, this will impact climate systems and likely lead to various public health threats.1 Greenhouse gas emissions


occur from many sectors of the IFHE DIGEST 2017


economy. Sectors such as power generation, cement generation, steel, forestry (especially as it relates to forests as a depository/sink for carbon dioxide), and transportation are often studied and cited as industries with large GHG impacts. As opposed to looking at GHG at a national level, many have advocated taking a sectoral approach, working specifically within sectors, to reduce overall GHG impacts. These advocates believe that working within sectors may lead to more innovative solutions, regulations, and collaborations to reduce GHG emissions.


WHO’s estimate Given the various sources of healthcare sector GHG emissions and the disparity in likely emission levels between countries, it can be difficult to quantify world healthcare sector emissions. The methodology presented here


seeks to be continuously robust, inviting submissions of country-level data from readers, IFHE members,


Troy Savage Troy Savage is a Project


Manager with Mazzetti. He


works with organisations to define and implement


strategic initiatives to reduce energy use intensity and greenhouse gas emissions.


Walt Vernon


Walt Vernon is the CEO of Mazzetti. He is one of the


Principal Authors for the WHO Book, Health in the Green Economy, and created the


WHO analysis of healthcare’s global GHG production. He serves on the Executive


Committee of the IFHE, and the board of the Facility Guidelines Institute.


Identifying and implementing ways to reduce emissions across the sector is an important activity


and other sources as described below. In order to remain robust, national-


level data needs must be clearly reported. Additionally, available public data should be utilised. This article extends a classical model to both assist understanding of healthcare GHG impacts and to ease provision of data for maximum estimate accuracy. The healthcare sector contributes to


GHG emissions. GHG emissions here are measured in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2


e). In simple terms CO2 e is a unit


that allows all emissions with global warming potential to be expressed in comparison to the global warming potential of CO2


. When considering


greenhouse gas emissions, consider direct emissions, indirect energy related emissions, and all other indirect energy emissions. These emission types are known as Scope 1, Scope 2 and Scope 3 emissions respectively.2 Scope 1 emissions are direct


emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the reporting entity, in this case the healthcare sector.


Examples of scope 1 emissions in healthcare include fuel used in generators, incinerators, air-conditioning and refrigeration gas refills; fuel used by emergency and other vehicles, gas used for cooking, medical gas consumed by anaesthetists and others.3 Scope 2 emissions are from purchased


or acquired electricity, steam, heat, and cooling. Power and steam/chilled water


41


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80