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ENERGY MANAGEMENT


Table 3: Simulation input changes for potential reduction in energy consumption. Item Base-case Parameters 1


Base-case Indicators


Glazing: 3 mm Clear single pane glass with reflective blinds


2 3 Lighting: T-12 cool-white


Halophosphate low frequency control


HVAC: Constant Air Volume (Design as Unitary Multi-volume CAV in simulation for simplification) Incorporating energy recovery to ventilation system and improving humidity ratio


look at factors that require further investigation for efficiency and saving opportunities.


Base-case hospital building energy characteristics A typical medium size base-case hospital building was modelled with the comprehensive Energy Plus simulation software, establishing a baseline model consistent with most common features and measurements of Malaysian hospital buildings. Design and operating conditions are set to predict building cooling load, annual electrical energy use and total energy use intensity and later used to determine improvements of annual energy consumption by varying important energy related parameters pertaining to building components, cooling system, lighting system and others. Input was based on information


gathered mainly from the surveys. It included information on location and design climates, building plan with typical construction information, building geometry and functional space zoning, building use information on lighting, equipment and occupancy density, building thermostatic control information of areas in building, typical ventilation and air-conditioning system specifications as well as scheduling of building operations. The building model has 10 occupied


floors with a total gross floor area of 74,905 m2


with about 65% of its gross


U-value = 5.894 W/m2-K. Shading coefficient = 0.86


Light Power


Density = 20 W/m2 5 W/m2


–100 lux Chiller COP = 3.8


(Efficiency rating 0.91 kW/TR) Various systems such as the VAV with reheat and Fan Coil. Variable speed fans for AHU for reduced fan energy and efficient ventilation.


High efficiency chiller with improved part load characteristics


Lowering the fresh outside air intake temperature and moisture content for better humidity control with suitable heat recovery system


2,500,000 n Average n Baseline n Maximum n Minimum 2,000,000


Feasible Energy Saving Measures Improvement of glazing with higher performance spectrally selective


glazing. Lower shading coefficient and lower U-value for reducing solar and conductive gains.


High efficiency lighting system: Various T-8 Triphosphor fluorescent lamps with high frequency electronic ballasts and T-5 type for reduced power density and heat output


1,500,000


1,000,000


500,000


0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Year 2014


Figure 4: Comparisons of EEUI/BEI and cooling capacity reduction from selected ESM.


floor area mechanically conditioned. Each floor is modelled as four external perimeter zones, 4.0 m average floor-to- floor height with a 1.0 m ceiling void for return air ducts and services. Each zone is defined as a region with a collection of rooms grouped together to the same type of thermal control and having similar internal load profiles. Horizontal overhangs are fitted on all façades, which is typical of many low rise buildings in Malaysia to limit direct solar radiation and glare into building space.


Table 4: Cost effectiveness analysis from the Selected Energy Saving Measures (ESM). Parameter


Annual energy


Base-case typical hospital building With Glazing of: Double LoE Tint Spec Sel.


6mm/6mm air/6mm With Lightings of: Fluorescent T5


With HVAC of: Improved chiller COP (ICCOP) ICCOP with Fan Coil system


Base-case values with cost effective ESM IFHE DIGEST 2017


(kWh/m2 253


250.5 227.7


222.0 202.0 180.0


)


Annual savings


(kWh/m2 2.53 25.30


31.00 51.00 73.00


)


Percent savings (%)


1.00 10.00


12.25 20.16 28.85


Typical to existing hospital design,


the ground floor consists of Operating Theatres, Intensive Care Units, Diagnostic and A&E Department (MRI and CT scanners, Angiography, Mammography, General Imaging, Linear Accelerator and Ultrasound), Laboratory and Pharmaceutical Departments. The first floor is where various Medical Specialist Clinics are located and the rest of the floors are the mechanically and naturally ventilated patient wards. Design occupancy density for the zones varies


Energy cost savings* (RM/m2


) 0.53 5.26


6.45 10.61 15.18


Change in


building cost** (RM/m2


) 4 5


26 47 56


Simple


payback (Years)


7.6 1.0


4.0 4.4 3.7


23


Monthly energy (kWh)


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