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CONSTRUCTION & DESIGN


The design includes an innovative earth tube air coolingsystem which takes water from the lagoon and cools it underground before delivering it into the building.


ventilation and natural lighting, which requires the use of an inefficient air conditioning system and artificial lighting throughout the daytime. The site also lacks a proper Master Plan to organise its circulation and functions and there are no covered circulation paths for the connection of the buildings. The climate in the region is harsh, dry


and tropical, with a rainy season and it is an area that is considered vulnerable to desertification. The average annual temperature is 26˚C, with average maximum of 36˚C and a minimum of 15˚C. During the rainy season the area can see rainfall of up to 620 mm in five months but in the dry season there is an average of just 48 mm. The east winds in the region are problematic, spreading the coal dust and dust particles, which exceed the recommended rate for human respiration for much of the year. To counteract the adverse climate


experienced in the region – mostly hot and dry – the design included the addition of patios which feature a moist and cool microclimate through the inclusion of ponds with fountains designed to utilise


The clinic was commissioned to ensure good lung health and hearing, which are two of the health issues most often associated with working on open-air mines


water vapourisation to help decrease the temperature. Most of the buildings have been


oriented along an east/west axis, perpendicular to the north or with a recommended tilt of 5˚ to the east to ensure that the building is able to make the best use of the available natural light from the sun. The building also features a wide roof which covers all the buildings and courtyards. The roof incorporates some translucent parts to allow for the growth of trees and foliage and to bring controlled natural light into the building. Alongside the natural light within the


building is an artificial lighting system of LED lamps. The building also includes a


system that catches the sunlight on the roof and uses fibre optics to bring this light to wherever it is needed inside the building. Energy for the building comes from a mixed system of photovoltaic panels and the public grid, which is powered by the nearby Cahora Bassa dam. Water is supplied to the building from


an artificial lagoon located to the east of the clinic. This lagoon harvests the majority of the annual rainfall – around 700,000 m3


of water. It was cleverly


positioned so that the prevailing winds first pass over the lagoon. This helps to cool and filter the particles of sand and coal which are found in the air, before it reaches the clinic. It is further planned that the lagoon will be surrounded by trees which will help to prevent water evaporation and will also attract the rich local wildlife. Water from the lagoon is also used


to feed the cooling cascades and ponds that are positioned throughour the inner courtyards of the clinic. As a further barrier to the east winds,


which carry sand and coal dust, a surrounding wall was created to protect the exterior covered spaces of the clinic. The wall directs the air up through a filter of thin pieces of local timber and causing the precipitation of particles before they enter the clinic. The roof that covers the courtyards


and buildings features a central skylight and side openings which promote ventilation by convection, expelling the hot air upwards. The windows of the building run from floor to ceiling, with openings on top and bottom to futher promote the convection of air, taking advantage of the air refreshed at the courtyards. An innovative earthtube air-cooling


The design includes the addition of patios with ponds and fountains that utilise water vapourisation to help decrease the temperature in the building.


16


system has also been incorporated into the design. This works by moving the air from the shadows of the trees around the


IFHE DIGEST 2017


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