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BUILDING DESIGN


The Pérola Hospital in São Paulo in 1950.


consists of a rectangular prism, based on stilts, access recessed and punctuated by a large glass panel located at the base of the complex, which overlooks a terrace with garden. The main building has ten floors and has blind side gables, which were so characteristic of this time, while white and pink tile coating was used. A semi- underground pavement was also planned to house various support services. The possibility of orientating the smaller axis of the building towards the north- south direction was favourable. Although the south façade favoured a magnificent view of the city, the north orientation for the beds prevailed.4 The lighting and ventilation solutions


were designed to provide comfort to the patient. The windows of the north façade had a cover slab that protects the window from direct solar radiation, despite having superior openings that guarantee adequate ventilation. The distribution of the wards is observed using the good solar orientation side, while the support service rooms are distributed on the other side of the building. In addition to the design orientation, the large amount of vegetation next to the north façade provides thermal comfort to the hospital building and enhancing the landscaping, which intentionally makes reference to the work of Burle Marx. There is also a mural in keeping with the artful approach of Brazilian Modern Architecture.


Hospital Pérola, São Paulo (1958) Hospital Pérola in São Paulo was designed by the architect Rino Levi, who was renowned for his hospital project expertise in Brazil and abroad. It was from his project for the Maternidade Universitária de São Paulo in 1944 that he became known as an authority on hospital projects, conducting courses and lectures on the topic, such as the first course in hospital architecture in Brazil - with his colleague Jarbas Karman - at the Institute de Arquitetos do Brasil (IAB SP). His studies earned him an invitation from


84


South-east façade of the Hospital Sul América in Rio de Janeiro in 1955.


Venezuela to embark on hospital buildings there at the end of the 1950s. In relation to his design philosophy


for hospitals, Levi wrote in 1954 that it was ‘no longer allowed to adopt pre- established shapes, like X-shaped, H-shaped, or comb-shaped plants, but also to discuss whether the hospital should be horizontal or vertical, in pavilions or in monobloc. In general, each hospital project has its own requirements and peculiarities. The design of the project should result solely from the functional and technical study of the problem, free from any other injunctions’.5 Levi was of great importance for the


development of hospital projects in Brazil and serves as a reference for the so-called São Paulo school of modern architecture. He designed several hospitals according to Brazilian Modern Architecture, establishing appropriate guidelines for their design.


Hospital Sul América, Rio de Janeiro (1959) One of the main examples of the vertical block typology of Brazilian Modern Architecture in healthcare building is Hospital da Lagoa in Rio de Janeiro, formerly Hospital Sul América, with its original design by architects Oscar Niemeyer and Hélio Uchôa Cavalcanti. The building features a vertical bloc seated on ‘V stilts’ and brises-soleil and cobogós so characteristic of the Brazilian Modern Architecture, as well as gardens designed by Roberto Burle Marx and tile panels designed by Athos Bulcão. The in-patient floors flow from a


central circulation that gives access to the rooms on one side (south-east aspect), with technical support service on the other (north-west). The layout of the in-patient floors denotes a clear concern in locating the spaces occupied by the


View of the north-west façade of the updated Hospital Sul América in 2010. IFHE DIGEST 2021


Source: L´Architecture d´Aujour d´Hui (No. 62)


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