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ENERGY MANAGEMENT


180 160 140 120 100 80


Electric hot water boiler


Air source heat pump


Electric panels/


Electric hot water boiler


Figure 1. Estimated difference in capital cost of system.


supportive case for a move to an all- electric hospital solution. Clean air, meanwhile, is of significant importance to health with evidence showing that on high pollution days there are increases in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and hospital admissions for stroke and asthma and with spikes in ambulance call-outs. In addition, scientists believe that perhaps a third of new asthma cases might be avoided by cutting emissions and other conditions are expected to become more common as temperatures rise.5


The all-electric hospital Upon defining the requirement that all systems within the hospital building are to use electricity as the only fuel source, this drives a discussion around electric heating systems. How this is most appropriately achieved have been considered and included in a review of three options as described below. A gas-fired boiler option is included


as a reference option in order to demonstrate comparison against what is the currently most standard approach in the UK. The study used the energy consumption from the following systems as the basis of calculations when considering operational cost and carbon for each option, while cooling and lighting are excluded from the capital cost assessment:


180 160 140 120 100 80


Electric hot water boiler


Air source heat pump


Electric panels/


Electric hot water boiler


Figure 3. Difference of heating fuel costs in the UK. 70


Gas-fired boiler


l Space heating l Domestic hot water l Cooling l Lighting l Auxiliary (pumps etc).


Option 1: electric boiler solution This is essentially very similar to a gas- fired solution but utilising an electric boiler instead. The electric boiler operates at standard low temperature hot water (LTHW) temperatures of typically 80˚C and distributes heating through a piped LTHW system. Domestic hot water (DHW) generation in this approach is via indirect hot water storage electric calorifiers fed by the LTHW system. Electric boilers are manufactured


by a number of suppliers and there are two main methods of heat generation in these systems: immersion element boilers and electrode boilers. Immersion element boilers pass current through metal-resistance heating elements immersed in water. The resistance generates heat which in turn heats the water.


Electrode boilers pass alternating


current between solid metal electrodes with the water acting as the resistive element utilising the water resistance to heat the water. For the peak demands forming the basis of this study, immersion element boilers were used.


180 160 140 120 100 80


Electric hot water boiler


Air source heat pump


Electric panels/


Electric hot water boiler


Figure 4. Difference of annual carbon emissions in the UK. IFHE DIGEST 2021


Gas-fired boiler


Gas-fired boiler


180 160 140 120 100 80


Electric hot water boiler


Air source heat pump


Electric panels/


Electric hot water boiler


Figure 2. Estimated difference of annual maintenance cost.


Option 2: air source heat pump Air source heat pumps (ASHP) transfer energy from the outside air and is used in the building using a vapour compression refrigeration cycle. Heat output is typically in the region of 50˚C, which is lower than standard LTHW operating temperatures and therefore requires consideration in heating system design. This includes measures such as increased pipework and emitter sizes and location of ASHP systems as local to emitters as possible, which means more consideration of delocalised heat generation, especially for larger buildings. This option is similar to Option 1 but


utilising ASHP technology for heat generation. DHW generation in this approach utilises ASHP to pre-heat the DHW prior to uplift in heating by electric boilers.


While reversible ASHPs can be utilised


to also provide space cooling, this requires separate distribution systems and more complicated system control and design. For the purposes of this study, the ASHP system is only proposed for heating.


Option 3: electric panel heaters/ water boilers This option consists of two separate heating systems as follows: l Electric ceiling mounted radiant


Gas-fired boiler


Percentage


Percentage


Percentage


Percentage


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