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WATER SYSTEM SAFETY


Conclusion In conclusion, it is now understood that bio-aerosols containing harmful pathogens can come from a number of apparatus within healthcare premises including showers, taps, washbasins, sinks, and toilets. Hand dryers are also a potential cause for concern. I believe that in order to reduce the instances of people becoming sick and sometimes dying due to healthcare-acquired infections caused by such bio-aerosols, manufacturers should continue to innovate and design better products that reduce aerosol risk. These new designs need to ensure


that aerosol production and contamination is minimised, for example the unique tubular washbasin which is part of the Angel Guard clinical unit that helps to reduce aerosol dispersal and splashing. In addition, there should be very careful consideration of when and where to site sanitary apparatus and the risks associated with toilets within an immunocompromised patient area. IFHE


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2 Tellier R, Li Y, Cowling BJ, Tang JW.


Recognition of aerosol transmission of infectious agents: a commentary. BMC Infect Dis 2019; 19 (1): 101.


3 Morawska L, Cao J. Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2: the world should face the reality. Environ Int 2020 Jun; 139: 105730.


4 Judson SD, Munster VJ. Nosocomial transmission of emerging viruses via aerosol- generating medical procedures. Viruses 2019 Oct 12; 11 (10): 940.


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6 ASHRAE. ASHRAE Position Document on Airborne Infectious Diseases, 2014.


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10 Laheij AM, Kistler JO, Belibasakis GN, Valimaa H, de Soet JJ. Healthcare-associated viral and bacterial infections in dentistry. J Oral Microbiol 2012; 4.


11 Brankston G, Gitterman L, Hirji Z, Lemieux C, Gardam M. Transmission of influenza A in human beings. Lancet Infect Dis 2007 Apr; 7 (4): 257-65.


12 Tellier R. Aerosol transmission of influenza A virus: a review of new studies. J R Soc Interface 2009 Dec 6; 6 (Suppl 6): S783-90.


13 Tuttlebee CM, O’Donnell MJ, Keane CT et al. Effective control of dental chair unit waterline biofilm and marked reduction of bacterial contamination of output water using two peroxide-based disinfectants. Hosp Infect 2002 Nov; 52 (3):192-205.


14 Roberts K, Smith CF, Snelling AM et al. Aerial dissemination of Clostridium difficile spores. BMC Infect Dis 2008 Jan 24; 8: 7.


15 Bollin GE, Plouffe JF, Para MF, Hackman B. Aerosols containing Legionella pneumophila generated by shower heads and hot-water faucets. Appl Environ Microbiol 1985 Nov; 50 (5): 1128-31.


16 Best EL, Sandoe JA, Wilcox MH. Potential for aerosolization of Clostridium difficile after flushing toilets: the role of toilet lids in reducing environmental contamination risk. J Hosp Infect 2012 Jan; 80 (1): 1-5.


17 Best E, Parnell P, Couturier J et al. Environmental contamination by bacteria in hospital washrooms according to hand- drying method: a multi-centre study. J Hosp Infect 2018 Dec; 100 (4): 469-75


IFHEDigest Providing insights into the vast field of healthcare engineering and facility management 62 IFHE DIGEST 2021


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