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HEALTH ESTATE ARCHITECTURE


not be carried out. It is possible and necessary - even if it seems contradictory - to modernise a hospital building and, at the same time, maintain its historical characteristics. Indeed, it is essential to ensure these buildings retain their historical and artistic character without comprising their modernity and safety.


Federal Hospital of Lagoa in Rio de Janeiro opened in 1958. Designed by renowned architect Oscar Niemeyer, it was declared a heritage site in 1992 by INEPAC (State Institute of Cultural Heritage). The original façade is shown on the left, while the hospital in 2018 is shown on the right.


primarily deal with reaction and recovery, which is more common in efforts to preserve historical heritage.8 For an effective diagnosis of the


conservation of health estate, it is necessary to identify and qualify the degree of physical degradation of the original aspects, as well as the aesthetics, of the buildings. The experience of the technicians involved and sensitivity to the importance of the architectural and cultural heritage of health – together with the adoption of practices related to sustainability – are fundamental in the conservation of these buildings. The recognition of buildings as heritage sites and assessing their cultural value also needs to be combined their healthcare function, the incorporation of technology, and maintenance of installed equipment. Giglioli9


makes the following


recommendations on what to consider when assessing sustainability applied to health estate heritage sites. l The useful life of a building: structural integrity, durability of applied materials and labour involved, and specific maintenance plans aimed at improving performance.


l Economic aspects related to location: aspects related to the population density of the local area, transport and accessibility potential.


l Energy efficiency: climate strategies, lighting, ventilation, energy savings,


environmental performance, and use of equipment with lower consumption potential.


l Potential for functional adaptations: the possibility for a variety of configurations and uses, extensions.


l Social aspects linked to the sense of place: image, history, aesthetics and urban landscape.


l Political context - ecology and conservation, support and ownership by the community, political and social support for functioning.


Conclusion By way of their characteristics and as markers of the history of places, cultures, and of social evolution through time, hospital estates are little different from other buildings. Yet technological development related to patient diagnosis and treatment has become a major challenge for all healthcare buildings. Technology develops faster than the capacity of buildings to be adapted and suitable for their use. These challenges - difficult to solve, and adapt to, in contemporary buildings - become even greater with buildings that are centuries old or have architectural characteristics we wish to maintain as originally designed and built. Yet to say the adaptation and


incorporation of technology is not simple does not mean that it cannot or should


References 1 Capute BN. Sustentabilidade e patrimônio cultural urbano: indicadores. Archdaily, 2016. https://www.archdaily.com.br/br/787693/ sustentabilidade-e-patrimonio-cultural- urbano-indicadores-bernardo-nogueira- capute.


2 Pereira JC. Sostenibilidad en el patrimonio histórico en las edificaciones revitalizas, PATORREB 2018. http://www.nppg.org.br/ patorreb/files/artigos/80497.pdf.


3 Bitencourt F. Sustentabilidade em Hospitais: um problema cultural? Revista Ambiente Hospitalar, 2007.


4 Monteiro FA. O Patrimônio cultural da saúde: discussões sobre a arquitetura hospitalar brasileira do século XIX, dissertation. Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Centro Cultural de Artes, 2014.


5 Sanglard G, Costa RG. Memória, História e Patrimônio Cultural da Saúde: uma história possível, 2008.


6 Segre R. Hospitais. Arquitetura da linha da sombra - Reflexão acerca do papel da arquitetura hospitalar na história mundial. Vitruvius, 2013 https://www.vitruvius.com.br/ revistas/read/resenhasonline/12.134/4607.


7 Bastos TP. Patrimônio & políticas culturais: os desafios para reservação da arquitetura hospitalar no Brasil. Anais do IX Seminário Internacional de Políticas Culturais, 15-18 May 2018.


8 Carsalade FL. Patrimônio histórico Sustentabilidade e sustentação. Arquitextos, June 2001. https://www.vitruvius.com.br/ revistas/read/arquitextos/02.013/885.


9 Giglioni LN. Estudo para possíveis ações sustentáveis nas práticas de restauração do patrimônio cultural: análise de três obras em Curitiba, dissertation. Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Civil, 2017.


IFHE


The rear of the Federal Hospital of Lagoa in Rio de Janeiro then (left) and now. IFHE DIGEST 2021 105


©Denis Gahyva


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