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Country Watch

lations. Regardless of whether the 2013 election is a legitimate reflection of the will of the Zim- babwean people, the results are going to have a profound effect for the Zimbabwean people.

* Sumbitted by Joshua Ash

Pakistan and India: Current Developments Between Two Nuclear-Armed Rivals

In 1858, India, then comprising modern-day In- dia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, officially fell under the rule of Great Britain. The beginning of Indian nationalism is best illustrated by the foundation of the Indian National Conference in 1885 by the Western-educated Hindu upper-caste members who sought to share power with the British rul- ers in India.

Even in the quest for independence from Great Britain, India was far from unified. By 1940, the Muslim League had gained enough traction to be relevant in the region. The group began calling not only for the independence of India, but also for the partition of India and the creation of a Muslim state. The latter would come to be known as Paki- stan. In July of 1947, Great Britain officially hand- ed over control to an independent India and to an independent Pakistan. Each princely state was allowed to choose for itself whether it wished to join Pakistan or India.

A majority of the population of Kashmir was Mus- lim and thus desired by Pakistan. However, the Maharaja, or ruler, was Hindu. Moreover, many of the Muslims in Kashmir did not favor joining Paki- stan. The Maharaja’s indecision led to a Muslim re- bellion in October of 1947, as well as an offensive by the Pakistani military. Facing early successes by Pakistani forces, the Maharaja asked for assis- tance from the Indian army, which agreed to help on the condition that Kashmir join India. A U.N.- brokered cease-fire went into effect on January 1, 1949, with Pakistan gaining control of the west- ern and northwestern two-fifths of Kashmir.

Emboldened by China’s defeat of India in 1962 and by a belief that tribal forces in Kashmir would join Pakistan, roughly 30,000 Pakistani forces dis- guised as Kashmiri citizens snuck into Kashmir on August 5, 1965. India successfully repelled the Pakistani military, which lost almost 4,000 troops and the United States as a strategic ally. The Unit- ed Nations once again brokered a cease-fire.

1971 saw a secessionist movement begin to grow in East Pakistan. Angered by India’s sup- port of the Mukti Bahini, or freedom fighters, Pakistan launched attacks on targets in western India on December 3, 1971. The next day, India suppressed Pakistan’s advances in western In- dia, gained and maintained air superiority, and launched a full invasion of East Pakistan. Due to India’s overwhelming success, Pakistan surren- dered on December 16, leading to the formation of an independent Bangladesh.

In 1998, India conducted nuclear tests, citing its concerns over Pakistani involvement in terrorist activities in Kashmir and Pakistan’s relationship with China. One month later, Pakistan tested a nuclear device.

In 1999, nuclear-armed Pakistan and India fought a brief war, known as the Kargil Conflict, which was instigated by Pakistan. The Indian military response, coupled with international opinion in favor of India, quickly led to Pakistan’s retreat.

India and Pakistan signed a cease-fire along the Line of Control, the effective border between the two countries, in November of 2003. While the cease-fire has prevented major conflicts, cross- border fighting has continued and the peace is still fragile. Tensions rose to their highest level after the November 2008 bombings and subse- quent small arms attacks by Pakistani terrorists in Mumbai, which lasted for three days and caused 166 deaths. Pakistan is currently holding trials for seven Pakistanis believed to have taken part in the massacre. On September 21 of this year, the Pakistani anti-terrorism court sent a team to

ILSA Quarterly » volume 22 » issue 1 » October 2013 19

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