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(high or low side of a pitch); intonation of intervals (a bright major third vs. a low minor third); and glissando vs. clarity between tones.

Also note that musical details such as rests and dramatic pauses, rubato and stressed notes often rely on technical control for maximum effect. Technique, however, is only at the service of emotion, tone and communication. Teachers may find that some players, however, may first need to attain a level of technical comfort with a work, before they are able to concentrate on expressivity.

Of course an artist uses the whole body while playing for maximum expressiveness. The instrument becomes an extension of the player. A truly artistic rendition, then, requires complete freedom mentally, physically and emotionally. A cellist, for example, who wishes to produce a big, triumphant sound does the following: 1) Turns emotions on, 2) Balances on the chair (forms a tripod with the feet), 3) Checks for free, flexible muscles (feet, legs, back, neck, arms, fingers, etc.), 4) Plays from

the ground, from under the feet, 5) Bows near the bridge, 6) Increases weight through the bow onto the string, 7) Pulls the bow, using the underside of the right upper arm, as well as the big muscles of the back (as when playing Tug of War), 8) Plays with the whole bow, (or nearest the frog, depending on length of notes), and 9) Produces sharp articulations.

Since a performance relies on the artistry of each individual musician, it becomes the teacher’s mission to locate the key to unlock each student’s own personal Expressive Tool Kit. As actors learn strategies for use of their whole body, including eyes, face, voice, articulation of words, tone of voice, etc., so musicians employ similar tactics to communicate. It’s entirely up to the performers and what they do with the notes (as with words in a story) to convey a message, story or emotion. In order for the listener to “get it,’ the musical picture must mean something to the performers, who then develop the expressive and technical tools to communicate with the listener. The performers decide what the listener should notice. Indeed, performers remain an integral part of the creative process.

An ultimate artistic experience results from nearly equal amounts of input from the head and heart, with a smattering of intuition to bind the mix. The final performance sounds alive and personal, as if created on the spot. At that moment the music transcends preparation, practice and learning to take on a life of its own as a peak musical experience.

Dr. Diane L. Winder, professor of cello at Eastern Michigan University since 1988, has presented at MMC and ASTA conferences and published in state and national string journals. A performer with the Alexander Trio, as well as numerous orchestras and summer festivals, Winder holds performance degrees from the University of the Pacific, Converse College and The Florida State University. Winder has also taught at Tennessee Tech and The Florida State University. She currently serves as Associate Dean in the College of Arts and Sciences and holds the office of President Elect for MASTA and Vice-Chair of Michigan Youth Arts. n

Central Michigan University School of Music

2011-2012 Music Major Auditions November 18 • January 28 • February 18 • March 16 • March 17

For information and audition requirements CMU School of Music – (989) 774-3281 CMU Admissions – (989) 774-3076

CMU, an AA/EO institution, strongly and actively strives to increase diversity within its community (see


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