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Open-access publishing

provide them with the possibility to link their article to data.

OA in itself is an important innovation that was almost non-existent a decade ago. But at Frontiers, we have already started to think beyond OA and how we can disseminate articles more effectively. While in the 1960s fewer than a hundred thousand research articles were published worldwide each year, in 2012 the research community

published approximately 2.5

million articles, and by 2020 it will be four

million. We need new mechanisms

to disseminate this research in a targeted, personalised way. This is why on top of our OA journal platform we built the Frontiers Research Network, a social networking technology

geared towards the needs of

academics. The mission of this Research Network technology is to make researchers and their work visible to maximise their discoverability, reach and impact. Our algorithms disseminate research articles automatically to the appropriate readership, while at the same time boosting impact. This approach combines OA publishing

with social networking, and I think this is the future. We also believe research should and can be understood by the public, including children. That’s why we launched Frontiers for Young Minds – an OA journal with an editorial board of kids. Authors translate their ‘real’ research articles into a language that kids can understand and they, the kids themselves, review this simplified article with established scientist mentors. This has been a rewarding experience and phenomenally well received, but also has a mission to take OA to the next level.

Dave Ross, executive publishing director, OA, SAGE O

ur strategy has always been to engage actively with OA. Very early on we entered a partnership with Hindawi Publishing Corporation and launched 30 titles in the medicine and life sciences. Based on our experience with Hindawi [the joint venture finished in 2011], we have since developed our own OA programme and continue to explore options for our publishing partners. We have a range of OA publishing options available, including fully gold OA journals such as SAGE Open and hybrid OA options across our traditional publishing journals through our SAGE Choice initiative. What has been clear from the start, and is reflected in our OA options, is that there is not a ‘one size fits all’ approach. There are differences in how scholarly publishing works in the social sciences and humanities (HSS) compared with science, technology and medicine (STM). This can clearly be seen, for example, in the lack of funding and budget allocated to the HSS sector, and the US political landscape in its research budget towards this discipline. And even within STM, for example, the needs of engineers are very different from those of life scientists. A recent study commissioned by the British Academy, ‘OA in the Humanities and Social Science’, went further, and suggested that the market should not so much be viewed as STM vs HSS, rather biomedicine vs the rest. Certainly OA in the humanities, where the monograph is the main conveyor of information, faces its own challenges, but many other social- science disciplines, where the research article is still the main vehicle, face their own particular problems, mainly due to the relative paucity of funding. In many HSS disciplines, the journal itself serves a very different purpose to those in STM. Selection mechanisms are different and the nature of scholarly work that deals with concepts

14 Research Information AUGUST/SEPTEMBER 2014

and ideas rather than empirical data requires different approaches. Developing scalable and interoperable systems to support OA has also posed significant challenges. Academic publishers work in a global environment and their author base is international. While the well-established western markets of Europe and North America still dominate, emerging economies are contributing an ever- increasing proportion of the research output, led by China and India. As a result, the plethora of national funder mandates provides a very challenging environment for publishers to work within. In addition, private funding agencies also have their own OA requirements. In order for any publishing model to be successful you have to have the support of your author base. It has always been a key part of

‘We have a range of OA publishing options available, including fully gold journals’

SAGE’s publishing outreach to work closely with researchers, libraries and our publishing partners to make sure that our publishing models support their needs and that we work though their concerns and challenges together. We have received positive feedback from our authors and librarian community in regards to the OA publishing models that we offer. Our social- sciences megajournal SAGE Open was quite a significant move to make given the uncertain penetration of OA models in the social science community and it created a great deal of interest. Since its launch in April 2011 with six papers, the

journal has received more than 2,900 submissions from 104 countries with more than 600 articles published and 730,000 downloads. Author behaviour will

to some

extent be driven by national funding agencies as OA has shifted from being a bottom-up, scholar-led movement to top-down funder-led. At SAGE we have developed strategies and policies to support the routes that our authors prefer and is most suitable to their publishing needs. We have a growing pure gold OA programme driven purely by APCs, and virtually all our subscription journals offer a hybrid gold option. At the same time we have put in place an adaptive policy to support our authors further within OA publishing. The OA publishing model, with a choice of licence type, fundamentally changes the legal relationship between the publisher and author. The long-term implications of a large-scale shift of copyright administration to the author has yet to be felt, but reusability is central to OA and we are experimenting with different CC options in different disciplines.

Our policies will be driven by author feedback and behaviour as we work with them to ascertain the best model. Many HSS authors have real concerns about derivative use, while for others commercial reuse is the issue. We allow both text and data mining. Because of the disciplines we work in we are not seeing an enormous amount of activity. The main focus for text and data mining has involved large datasets and reports in the life sciences and chemistry, and these are not fields we have a large portfolio in. We currently have numerous OA projects for

in the pipeline this year, including the

launch of several of our own fully OA journals complimenting our SAGE Open portfolio.


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