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Open-access publishing

transparency issues such as funding information, to fundamental financing questions related to the transition from subscription to gold OA publishing. Our approach is to discuss with our partners their specific needs and work together to find solutions.

Springer gives authors the choice under which publishing model they would like to publish. If they opt for OA, they can choose between our megajournal SpringerPlus, more than 400 fully gold OA journals at SpringerOpen and BioMed Central, or our large portfolio of hybrid journals. The quality and reputation of a journal is

still by far the most important factor for an author when choosing where to be published, so authors appreciate such a wide range of choice. Authors also appreciate that we are able to inform them about their funding options, because these are often not clear. We are strong promoter of the gold route but we also support green. We believe that the

gold route is most beneficial, by ensuring high- quality papers and their immediate accessibility to everyone; plus our CC-BY licence leaves authors with no concerns about compliance to funders’ and institutional mandates. We also support green by allowing the deposit of the author’s accepted manuscript into any repository or pre-print server with

‘Springer gives authors the choice under which publishing model they would like to publish’

an embargo period of 12 months. For self- archiving purposes, authors can post the author’s accepted manuscript immediately on their personal website. All BioMed Central, Chemistry Central,

and SpringerOpen articles are published under the CC-BY 4.0 Creative Commons

Kamila Markram, co-founder and CEO of Frontiers F

rontiers journals publish articles through a gold OA publishing model that requires authors to pay an article- processing fee upon article acceptance. This enables articles to be published immediately without restriction. We also offer many article types that are free of charge. For example, Frontiers Focused Reviews, which are reviews of an original discovery, are published for free. In the past few years, a growing number of governments, institutions and funders have implemented progressive OA policies. One key challenge we need to overcome, however, is the lack of a unifying policy across these stakeholders. For example, some policies favour green OA with varying embargo periods, while others prefer gold. This patchwork of policies has caused confusion among researchers and institutions, and hinders progress towards universal gold OA. Also, most stakeholders do not, or cannot, enforce their OA policies, which has led to a slower uptake. But overall I think we have already reached a tipping point and all research will be made accessible via gold OA within the next decade. Another

important challenge is the

cultural change required in the mindset of the researchers themselves. Some academic communities are already well versed in the practice of gold or green OA. @researchinfo

However, funding is, of course, also a challenge. Having to pay to publish articles is a novel concept for many academics. A common

misconception, often wrongly

propagated in blogs and sometimes picked up in established media, is that online OA publishing is low-cost. Yet it’s far from cheap to hire staff, produce high-quality article versions in PDF, XML and HTML, build

‘Another important challenge is the cultural change required in the mindset of researchers’

and maintain software to process articles, store articles and associated files associated permanently on the internet, archive them in repositories, and many other operations. The key to addressing this challenge is advocacy: to explain OA publishing and its costs, and to show that publishing in subscription journals is not free either. The latter charge for colour figures and nowadays also for OA options; in the end somebody always pays, in this case libraries, often excessively. Many more funders and institutions are now offering funds for their affiliated researchers to publish in gold

OA journals, and this should be less of a challenge in the years to come. For authors from developing countries and others who genuinely do not have the means to pay, Frontiers offers waivers.

As stated by the Berlin Declaration, OA

is about free access and removing barriers to reuse. We believe that science, medicine and engineering are the very fabric of modern society, and that research should be freely available for the benefit of humanity. Hence, we publish under the CC-BY licence, which permits reuse

and distribution without

restriction as long as the original source and authors are acknowledged.

This licence has become the gold standard for OA publishers and I think it addresses the demands of today, for example, for text and data mining. We have also optimised our article XMLs and web platform and will make API access to our content available to allow easy text mining.

At Frontiers, we support the principle of making data freely available and we are in the process of developing new article types for data publication as well as establishing collaborations with other organisations to link data to articles. We do not go as far as making it a requirement for authors to make their data openly available when they publish an article but we offer authors the choice and

AUGUST/SEPTEMBER 2014 Research Information 13


Attribution licence – this policy came into effect in early February this year. Before this, articles were published under an earlier version of the CC-BY licence. Version 4.0 is the most up-to-date version

so the work that we publish can benefit from more than a decade of community input and improvement that has gone into the CC-BY licence. This also applies to OA articles published in the majority of Springer’s subscription-based journals using the OpenChoice option. We will continue to develop further our OA activities and cooperate with funders to develop innovative OA content and models to make sure we will be able to serve the scientific communities better in their needs for OA. At the same time our subscription-based licensing business – most probably combined with green OA policies – will also still be an important part of our activities in the foreseeable future.

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