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Feature 3 | GERMAN MARINE INDUSTRIES


engine (in case of a gas shut-down) is given with the dual fuel concept. In practise the change-over from gas to diesel oil will not be recognised. Te diesel oil capacity has been increased


by 36% to 432tonnes due to the additional demand for the pilot fuel injection of the engine. The LNG tank capacity is about 400tonnes LNG and increases the operational range of the vessel from 12600sm (“heavy fuel oil” design) to 15800sm. Te container capacity is reduced by 48TEU to 1236TEU. A cost-benefit analysis was performed


using the HFO/MGO-fuelled vessel as reference design. It was assumed that the price of MGO will be 80% higher than for HFO from 2015 on. It was further assumed that the price of LNG will remain linked to HFO. In addition, a 20% premium for LNG distribution was added. Te base case for the cost-benefit analysis considered only the fuel cost differences, the investment for the gas supply system, the dual fuel engine and structural changes as well as a slightly reduced earning capacity due to the use of the aſt most cargo hold as gas tank space. Te base scenario assumes a delivery of the vessel in 2014 and gas-fuelled operation starts fully in 2015. Annual fuel cost advantages for the gas-fuelled feeder are about US$4million/ year reflecting the price difference between MGO and LNG. In 2009, LNG prices decreased significantly compared to the base scenario and this would lead to even larger cost advantages for gas-fuelled vessels if the LNG price remained at this level. However, the price differential between


LNG and HFO and MGO is set to remain significant enough to offer LNG users


FROM LEFT TO RIGHT DAMEN COMBI FREIGHTER 11000 DAMEN CONTAINER FEEDER 800


savings. According to Dr Pierre Sames, GL’s Senior VP for Strategic R&D, believes that the price differential between HFO, MGO and LNG will remain. “Demand for HFO will increase from Asia in particular and with high production costs through drilling in deep water or in the Arctic region with severe weather this will push HFO prices higher while there has been a surge of new suppliers of LNG in Qatar, Russia, Malaysia and Brunei.”


LNG supply chain Current developments in Northern Europe indicate that LNG as a fuel will be available for bunkering within the next years due to new liquefaction plants like NORDIC LNG in Stavanger, Norway. Tese developments will establish the basis for a LNG supply chain for dedicated markets. Further with re-export from existing large-scale LNG terminals it is feasible to feed the supply chain for LNG fuel gas as shown by the loading of Coral Methane at Zeebrugge in May 2010. Small scale LNG carriers (10,000m3


,


built for regional supply) will then be the link between these liquefaction plants or re-export terminals and bunkering in harbours. A number of small LNG carriers like Norgas Innovation, Coral Methane and Pioneer Knudsen are already in service and further new buildings are under construction.


Regulatory framework According to the IGC-Code (International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Liquefied Gases in Bulk) only LNG carriers are allowed to


utilise LNG boil-off gas in the machinery space as fuel. Since 2000 a few LNG fuelled vessels, which are not covered by the IGC-Code, have come into service with the permission of the national administration, and they are only allowed to sail in these national waters. Because of the obvious lack of


international safety requirements for gas as fuel for non-LNG tankers the development of an International Code for Gas as Ship Fuel (IGF-Code) was proposed to the Marine Safety Committee (MSC) of IMO in 2004. Te goal of the Guideline is to provide an international standard for ships with natural gas-fuelled engine installations. Te Interim Guideline (MSC.285(86)) was adopted in June 2009 and gives criteria for the arrangement and installation of LNG fuelled machinery to achieve an equivalent level of integrity in terms of safety, reliability and dependability compared to conventional oil-fuelled machinery. Te Interim Guideline is the international safety standard until the general Code is developed and set into force as a part of the SOLAS convention. Te IMO is currently developing this code and the schedule is the next SOLAS revision in 2014. Te research project shows the feasibility


of such a project and has not identified any technical obstacles for the integration of a gas fuelled propulsion system onboard of a container feeder vessel. Te economical analysis documented the cost advantages for a gas-fuelled container feeder vessel operating in an emission control area from 2015 on. Te cost advantage will be increased if CO2


emissions costs and NOx limitations are included in the analysis. NA


DAMEN SHIPYARDS GORINCHEM


Industrieterrein Avelingen West 20 4202 MS Gorinchem


P.O. Box 1 4200 AA Gorinchem


The Netherlands 108 The Naval Architect September 2010


Member of the DAMEN SHIPYARDS GROUP


phone +31 (0)183 63 99 11 fax +31 (0)183 63 21 89


info@damen.nl www.damen.nl


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