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FEATURE


increased for radical changes in wildlands management (Kramer & VanSchaik 1997).


Discussions at the international level focused on understanding the complex links between development, poverty and the environment resulting in the “sustainable development” concept. Following the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), a consensus emerged that rural “sustainable development” should be grounded in locallevel solutions emanating from community initiatives (Ghai & Vivian 1992, Ghai 1994). “Communitybased conservation” promoted topdown, centerdriven efforts to favor “natural resources or biodiversity protection by, for, and with the local community” (Western & Wright 1994).


Conservationists recognized longterm success depended on fostering cooperation and support of local communities (Western & Wright 1994, Brandon et al. 1998, Agrawal & Gibson 1999). However, most communitybased conservation efforts fell short of expectations (Wells & Brandon 1992, Wells 1994, Leach et al. 1999, Hulme & Murphree 2001b).


Communitybased wildlife projects Excellent reviews of African, communitybased wildlife conservation projects exist (Western & Wright 1994, Hulme & Murphree 2001a). These projects are naturally complex because they take into account multiple interests, actors and institutions that interact and influence decisionmaking (Agrawal & Gibson 1999). Most conservation


BIRD SCENE 41


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