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conservation work have been utilized effectively. To ensure future success, board members believe that this program requires: (a) additional community leaders in more communities, (b) yearly strategic planning, (c) funding to hire a fulltime staff member, (d) continued environmental education for children, (e) a transparent accounting system, and (f) continued research and monitoring.


KEY WORDS


Ara macao, communitybased conservation, Costa Rica, environmental education, monitoring, Scarlet Macaw, strategic planning.


Research Journal of the Costa Rican Distance Education University (ISSN: 16594266) Vol. 4(1), June, 2012


40 BIRD SCENE


Wildlands and wildlife conservation in the crucible Beginning in the 1970’s, many developing countries followed the U.S. model of creating wildlands (national parks and equivalent reserves) by setting aside undisturbed habitats for the “enjoyment of current and future generations”(Ghai 1994). However, local politicians and residents increasingly questioned exclusion of locals from areas they had utilized for generations. Over 75% of wildlands in Latin America had ineffective protection, longterm management plans nor economic resources (World Conservation Monitoring Center 1992). Resentment, mistrust and conflicts often ensued between local communities and park officials (Boo 1990). Many leaders in developing countries labeled reserve creation a second wave of colonialism, and political pressure


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