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mwpe;jpUg;gH. jpUe;jpa nkhopfspy; njYq;F> fd;dlk;> kiyahsk; Mfpa %d;W nkhopfSk; tifnjhifahf tlnrhw;fisf; fzf;fpd;wp fld; thq;- fpAs;sd. ,jdhy; tlnkhopapd; cjtp apd;wp thOk; jdpj;jd;ikapid ,oe; Js;sd. Mdhy; jkpOf;F ,j;jifa epiy ,y;iy.


goq;fhyj; ,yf;fpaj; jkpo; nre;jkpo; vd;Dk; ngaH ngw;wJ. ,jpy; tlnrhw; fyg;G kpfkpff; FiwT. ehl;Lg;Gw Ngr;R tof;Fj; jkpopYk; tlnrhw;fyg;G kpfkpf; FiwNtahFk;. ,Ue;Jk; ,t;thwhfTk; fye;Js;s tlnrhw;fs; Mq;fpyj;jpy; fye; Js;s yj;jpd; nrhw;fspd; tpfpjhrhuj;- jpid tpl kpfkpf; FiwthdNj.


nkhopfspd; xw;Wik Ntw;Wikfis tpsf;f mbfg;gilahdJ mk;nkhopfspd; ,yf;fz mikg;gg; gw;wpa Muhr;rpahFk;. jpuhtpl nkhopfspd; Fwpg;ghf jkpopd; ,yf;fz kugpid tlnkhopapd; ,yf; fz kuGld; xg;gpl;L Muha;e;jhy; jpuh tplnkhopfs; tlnkhopapd;W nghpJk; NtWgl;L tpsq;Ffpd;wd.


,f;fhuzq;fspdhy; jpuhtpl nkhopfs; tlnkhopapdpd;W gpwe;jit vd;w nfhs;if fhy;Lty; mtHfshy; kWj;Jiuf;fg;gL fpwJ. vdNt jputpl nkhopfis Mhpa nkhopfNshL njhlHGgLj;jhky; mit ,e;jpa ehl;by; Njhd;wp tsHe;j jdp nkhopapdkhfNt fUjg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;whH.


NkYk; fhy;Lty; mtHfs; Mhpa nkhop fSf;Fk; jpuhtpl nkhopfSf;Fk; ,il Na cs;s xw;Wik Ntw;WikfisAk; jpwk;gl Muhe;Js;shH.


fhy;Lty; tifg;gLj;jpa Mhpa> jpuhtpl nkhopfspd;


xw;Wik Ntw;Wikfs;: 





,U tif nkhopfspYk; glHf;ifg; ngahpYk; tpidapYk; ghy;ghFghL cz;L.


fpNuf;f nkhopapy; dfuk; clk;gL nka;ahf cs;sJ. njYq;fpYk; ,t; thwhf cs;sJ.





glHf;if xd;wd;ghy; tpFjpahf ,U tif nkhopfspYk; ‘j’ cs;sJ.





gytpd; ghy; tpFjpahf ‘m’ jpuhtpl nkhopfspYk; yj;jpd; nkhopapYk; cz;L.





,Utif nkhopfspYk; Nra;ikr; Rl;L mfukhfTk; mz;ikr; Rl;L ,fukhfTk; cs;sd. (mJ> ,J) (That, This)





‘j’ vd;w vd;w ,ilepiy jpuhtpl nkhopfspy; ,we;j fhyj;ij czHj; Jjy; NghyNt ghurPf nkhopapYk;


j;


,ilepiyNa fhyj;jpid czHj;Jk;. Mq;fpyj;jpy; Talked Kjypa tpidf- spy; j; (d) ,we;jfhyk; czHj;Jj iyf; fhzyhk;.





tpidg;gFjpapy; xU nka; ,ul;bj;J ,we;j fhyk; czHj;Jjy; jpuhtpl nkhopfspy; cs;sJ. mNjNghy; Mhpa nkhopfspYk; cs;sJ. (nkhop E}ypd; gb mJ ,ul;bj;jy; vdg;glhJ> kw; nwhU nka; te;J NrUjyhFk;. Mj yhy; fhy;Lty; fUj;J ,q;F nghUe; jhJ.)





tpidg; gFjpapy; Kjy; capH ePz;L njhopw;ngaH MFjy; ,Utif nkhop fspYk; cz;L.


Ntw;Wikfs;: 


jpuhtpl nkhopfspy; cs;s jpiz> ghy; ghFghL rpwe;jJ> jdpj;jd;ik ahdJ. Mdhy; Mhpa nkhopfspy; ghy;ghFghL nraw;ifahdJ> fw;g idahdJ. Mz;ghy;> ngz;ghy;> mypg;ghy; vd;w ghy; ghFghL Mhpa nkhopfspy; cs;sJ. nghUspd; jd;- ikf;Fk; mtw;iw czHj;Jk; nrhw; fspd; ghYf;Fk; njhlHNgapy;iy.





jpuhtpl nkhopfspy; ngaHr; nrhw;fspd; gpd; Ntw;Wik cUGfs; cUtk; jphp ahkNy Ntw;Wikg; nghUis czHj; Jk;. me;j cUGfs; (6Mk; Ntw;Wik jtpu kw;iwa Ntw;Wikfspy;) xUik gd;ik NtWghbd;wp toq;Ffpd;wd.





Mdhy; Mhpa nkhopfspy; cUGfs; ngaHr; nrhy;ypypUe;J gphpf;f Kbah- jthW gpize;J epw;fpd;wd. xUikf; Fk; gd;ikf;Fk; ntt;NtW cUGfs; cs;sd.





jpuhtpl nkhopfspy; m/wpizg; ngaH fSld; gd;ik tpFjpfs; NrHe;J toq;Ftjpy;iy (kuk;+fs; = kuq;fs;) Mq;fpyj;jpy; Tree - Trees vd;wthwhf tUk;.





Mhpa nkhopfspy; Kd;DUGfs; toq; Fk; ,lq;fspy; jpuhtpl nkhopapy; gpd;DUGfshf ,ilr;nrhw;fs; gad; gLfpd;wd.





jpuhtpl nkhopfspy; nganur;rq;fs; ghy;> vz; czHj;jhky; nghJthf toq;Fk;. Mhpa nkhopfspy; nganur;rk; ghiy Ak; vz;izAk; czHj;Jfpd;wd.





jputplnkhopfspy; gz;Gg;ngaiu mil ahf toq;Ftjw;Fhpa ,lj;jpYk; (cau kuk;) mjd; nganur;r tbit toq;F fpd;wd. caHe;j kuk; vd;Dk; Kiw Mhpa nkhopfspy; ,y;iy.





jpuhtpl nkhopfspy; nrag;ghl;L tpidf;Fj; jdptbtk; ,y;iy. ‘gL’ vd;Dk; JiztpidNa mjid mikf; fpd;wJ. Mdhy; Mhpa nkhopfspy; mjw;Fj; jdptbtk; cs;sJ.





Mhpa nkhopfspy; gy> tpidfSf;F ,ilapy; ,izg;G ,ilr; nrhw;fisg; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wd. Mdhy; jpuhtpl nkhopfs; tpid vr;rq;fisg; gad; gLj;Jfpd;wd.





jpuhtpl nkhopfspy; cld;ghl;bw;Fk; vjpHkiwf;Fk; ntt;NtW tpid tb tq;fs; cs;sd. Mdhy; Mhpa nkhop fspy; ,t;thW ,y;iy.





Mhpa nkhopfspy; ,izg;G ,lg; ngaH cs;sJ. jpuhtpl nkhopfspy; mjdplj;jpy; nganur;rKk; tpidah- yizAk; ngaUNkAs;sd.





jpuhtpl nkhopfspy; jOTk; njhlH fs; jOtg;gLk; njhlHfSf;F Kd; mikjy; ,ay;ghf cs;sJ. Mdhy; Mhpa nkhopfspy; ,t;thW ,y;iy.


,t;thwhf jpuhtpl nkhopfspd; Fwpg; ghf jkpopd; jdpjd;ikapidAk; mjd; gpwg;G NtW ve;j nkhopapdJ jhf;fk; ,d;wp jhNd Njhd;wp tsHe;jJ vd;w thwhf jdJ Ma;Tfspd; %yk; mtH Kbtpw;F te;Js;shH. ,itfSf;F Mjhukhf rq;f ,yf;fpaq;fisAk; mjpy; ifahsg;gLk; nkhop tsj;jp idAk; $wp Mjhuk; NrHf;fpd;whH.


NtW Muhr;rpfSk; mtuJ


E}y;fSk;: ,tH nkhopaha;T> rka Nrit> r%f Nrit> fy;tpr;Nrit> Rfhjhu Nrit vdg; gy;tifr; NritfspD}Nl rhpj;jpu Ma;T> mfo;thuhr;rp Nghd;wtw;wpidAk; nra;ayhdhH. jpUney;Ntypapy; nra;ag; gl;l mfo;thuhr;rpapd; %yk; jkpoupd; xU gf;f tuyhw;Wg; gjpTfisAk; ntspf; nfhzHe;jhH. mg;NghJ gy fy;ntl;Lf; fs;> fl;blf;fiy> Xiyr; Rtbfs;> gioa ehzaq;fs;> ghz;ba kd;dHfspd; kPd; rpd;dq;fs; Nghd;wdtw;wpidf; fz;L gpbj;jhH. ,t;thuhr;rpfspd; fhuzkhf ‘A Political and General History of Thinnaveli’ 1881y; kjuh]; gpwrpnld;rp murhq;fj;jpd; MjuTld; ntspapl;lhH. ,jpy; mq;F epytpa rhjpa NtWghLfs;> r%ff; Fiw ghLfs;> mtHfSf;F mjdhy; Vw;gl;l ghjpg;Gf;fs;> mf;fhy kf;fspd; tho;f;if Kiw gw;wpAk; Fwpg;gpLfpd;whH.


,itfs; ahtw;iwAk; EZf;fkhf Muha;e;jjdhNyNa ,j;jifa tho;f;- ifapy; ,Ue;J mtHfis tpLtpf;f fy;tp> ngz; fy;tp> mtHfSf;fhd r%fey Nrit Nghd;wtw;wpid mtUk; mtuJ kidtpAk; NrHe;J nra;ayhapdH. gy ghlrhiyfs; epWtp NghjfHfs; %yKk; mtu;fshy; gapw;wg;gl;l MrphpaHfs; %yKk; fy;tpapidg; Nghjpf;fyhapdH. ,t;thwhf jpUney;Ntyp> jpUthq;$H> ,ilad;Fb> J}j;Jf;Fb> FkhpKid> ehfh;Nfhtpy; Mfpa gpuNjrq;fSf;Fk;; ,tHfs; jq;fsJ fy;tp eltbf;iffis


jha;tPL


• etk;gu;


2011 ghk;gzpe;j ghtpfs;


mJ fhL rhu;e;j xU taw;fpuhkk;. mq;F ,se;njd;de; Njhg;GfSk; epiwa ,Ue; jd. mq;FtUk; rpy Fuq;Ffs; njd;id fspy; Vwpf; Fiyapy; itj;Nj fhiag; gwpj;J> ,sePiuf; Fbj;JtpLtJz;L. xU khiy Neuk; ,k;Kaw;rpapy; <Lgl;Lf; nfhz;L njd;dk;tl;Lf;Fs; Fe;jpapUe;j Fuq;nfhd;W> gf;fj;Jj; njd;dk; tl;Lf; Fs; xUtd; ghisapw; nfhStpapUe;j Kl;biaf; fow;wp> mjpypUe;j fs;is mtrukhff; Fbj;Jtpl;L> Kl;bia kPz; Lk; ghisapy; nfhStpaijAk;> ,wq;fp XbaijAk; fz;lJ. mJ kWehs; me;- jpapy;> xU kzpNeuk; Ke;jpNa Ngha;> mNj njd;idapy; Vwpf; fs;is ke;jp tpl;L> epyj;Jf;F te;jJ. njU Xukhf mJ js;shb efu;e;J nfhz;bUe;jNghJ> Xu; ,isQd; jiyg;ghifAld; g+kh iy mzpe;J> gyu;#o ele;J tUijf; fz;L> jhDk; mg;gbj; jd;id myq;f upj;Jg; gtdptu Mir nfhz;lJ. me;jj; njUtpy; xU tPl;bd; gpd; tstpd; nfhb apy; fha tplg;gl;bUe;j xU nts;isr; rhy;itia vLj;Jj; jiyg;ghif fl;bf; nfhz;lJ. fOj;Jf;F khiyiag; gf;fj; jpy;> tay;fs; eLtpYs;s Nfhtpw; Rthkp fOj;jpypUe;J vLj;J mzptjw;fhf> tay;tuk;gpy; ,wq;fp ele;jJ. Gw;Wf;Fs; mtpf;Fk; nta;apy; jhq;f Kbahky; jtpj;j Kj;jpiug; Gilad; xd;W ntsp Na te;J> me;j tuk;gpy; RUz;L gLj;Jf; fple;jJ. jiyfhy; njupahj fs;Sntwp apy; epd;w me;jf; Fuq;Ff;F mJ g+khiyahfNt njupe;jJ. clNd Ngha; me;jg; ghk;igj; J}f;fp> khiyNghy; Njhspy; Nghl;Lf; nfhz;lJ. jd; $l;lk; Nehf;fp tpiue;j Fuq;F ntwp Kwpe;J> XusT RaepidT kPz;lnghOJ> jd; fOj;ijg; ghk;G Rw;wpapUg;gij czu;e;J mjpu;e;jJ. jq;fis neUq;fpa Fuq;fpd; mtyf; Nfhyj;ijf; fz;L jha;> je;ij> cwT> Rw;wq;fs; mywpg;gjwpd. me;jf; Fuq;F fs;isf; Fbj;Jj; jhdhf type;J Njbf; nfhz;l Jd;gNk mJ vd;Wzu;e;j NghJ> mij ntWj;Jj; jpl;b> tpyfp Xbd. jdpadhfptpl;l Fuq;F ‘ghk;ig vLj;J tPr Kw;gl;lhy; mJ nfhj;jptplyhk;. ,g;gbNa ,Uf;ftpl;lhYk; grp> jhfk; tUk;NghJ nfhj;jf; $Lk;!’ vd;W mQ;rp> “ahuhtJ xU rpul;il gRg;ghy; jhUq;fs;!” vd;W mDq;fpaJ. jha;f;Fuq;F kl;Lk; ngw;w gopjPu> vq;Nfh


tphpTgLj;jpapUe;jdH. mj;NjhL jpUkjp fhy;Lnty; mtHfs; r%ff; FiwghL ila ngz;fspd; epiyawpe;J mtHf Sf;Fj; njhopy;fisg; gof;fp mtHfSk; tUkhdk; NjLk; Kaw;rpahf ifj;njh opw; gapw;rpfis toq;fyhdhH. ,jpy; Ny]; gpd;Djy; xU Kf;fpa njhopyhfpaJ.


NkYk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f Nritfshf jkpopy; G+ir nra;jy;> xU ehisf;F xU kuk; eLjy;> tPjpNahu ku eLif vd;W ,d;Wk; mtuhy; epWtg;gl;l MW ghlrhiyfs; ,r; Nritapidj; njhlUfpd;wd. mjpy; Kf;fpakhdJ J}j;Jf;Fb fhy;Lty; fy;Y}hpahFk;.


fhy;Ltypd; ,Wjpf; fhyk;: jdJ ,Wjpf; fhyj;jpid Xa;thf fopg; gjw;F nfhilf;fhdypy; cs;s mrk;G vd;Dk; ,lj;jpid njhpT nra;J mq;F tho;e;jhH. mq;Fk; mtH QhapW jtpu Vida fpoik ehl;fspy; 6 kzpNeukh tJ Ntiy nra;thH. ,jpy; ,uz;L kzpNeuk; E}y;fs; vOjr; nrytpLthH.


1891,y; ,wg;gpidj; jOtpdhH. ,tuJ G+jTly; ,tuhy; fl;lg;gl;l ,ilad;Fbapy; cs;s Gdpj jpUj;Jt Njthyaj;jpy; mlf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. gpd;dH ,tuJ kidtp ,we;jNghJk; mtuUNf mNj Njthyaj;jpy; mlf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.


fhy;Lty; ntspapl;l Ehy;fs;;:


r.Nt. gQ;rhl;ruk;


Ngha;> xU fpz;zj;jpy; ghy; nfhz;L te;J> J}uj;jpy; itj;J tpl;L vl;lg; NghdJ. ghk;gpd; jiyf;Ff; fpl;lg; ghiyf; Fuq;F gpbf;f> mJ fhy;thrpg; ghiyf; Fbj;Jtpl;L> kPz;Lk; Fuq;fpd; Njhspy; gLj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. ,ilapil Na ,t;thwhfg; ghk;G ghy; Fbj;Jg; grpahw> jhd; kl;Lk; Cz;> cwf;fk; ,d;wp> ,uT gfyhf ele;Nj jpupe;j


Fuq;F %d;whk; ehs; grp> jhfk;> fisg;G> Ml;Lk; J}f;fk; vd;gtw;why; Raepid tpoe;J xU kuj;jpd; mbapy; rha;e;J tpl;lJ.


,uz;L ehl;fspd; gpd;> mwpT kPz;L> tpopj;Jg; ghu;j;j Fuq;F> jd; fOj;jpy; ghk;gpy;yhjijf; fz;L Js;sp vOe;jJ; rpwpJ J}uj;jpy; xU fpof;Fuq;F kJ kaf;fj;jpy; js;shb epw;gijAk;> jdJ ‘g+khiy’ mjd; fOj;jpy; tPw;wpUg;gij Ak; fz;L mNjh jpUk;gpAk; ghu;f;fhky;> Xbj; jg;gpj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.


vj;jid kjp kaq;fpfis vj;jid er;Rg; ghk;Gfs; ,g;gbf; fOj;ijr; Rw;wp tijf; fpd;wdNth?” vd;W mJ fj;JtJ cq; fSf;Fq; Nfl;fpwjh?


Panchacharam@thaiveedu.com


Comparative Grammar of Dravidian Languages 1836, Revised edition 1875





A Political and General History of Thinnaveli 1881 (jpd;dNtypr; rhpj;jpuk;)


 ew;fUizj; jpahdkhiy (jkpo;) 1871  jhkiuj; jlhfk; (jkpo;)  ew;fUiz (jkpo;)


fl;Liufs;: 





Christianity and Hinduism – A lecture addressed to the educated Hindus 1879


Evangelistic Work Amongst the Higher Class and Caste in Thinnavely 1879


 The March of the Unsaved 1896  Observation of Kudumi 1867 





Records of the Early History of the Thinnavely 1881


Report of the Edaiyankudy district 1845 crhj;Jiz Ehy;fs;:


• jpuhtpl nkhopfspd; xg;gpyf;fzk; - fhy;Lty;


• jkpo; nkhop tuyhWk; jkpo; ,yf;fpa tuyhWk; – Xk; rf;jp gjpg;gfk;


• nkhop tuyhWk; ,yf;fpa tuyhWk; - mz;zkiyg; gy;fiyf; fofk;


• fhy;Lty; mj;jpal;rH – NguhrphpaH b.V.fpwp];jjh]; 1980


• fhy;Lty; IaH rhpj;jpuk; - uh.gp.NrJg;gps;is • tpf;fpgPbah NjLjsk;


b.gp.rptuhk; (juhf;fp) yq;fh fhbad; fl;Liu- Mf];l; 1. 1992


packiyanathan.m@thaiveedu.com


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