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jha;tPL


• etk;gu; nwhNgl; fhy;Lnty;


gp\g; Dr. nwhNgl; fhy;Lnty;: nrd;w khjf; fl;Liuapy; “nkhopQhapW QhdKj;J NjtNeag; ghthzhH gw;wpa fl;Liuiag; gw;wpg; gy thrfHfs; ghuhl;baJld; ,JNghd;w fl;Liufs; NkYk; tuNtz;Lk; vd;w Ntz;Ljypdh Yk; ghthzH mtHfspd; nkhop Ma;tpw;F mbj;jskhfTk;> topfhl;bahfTk;> jkpo; nkhopapd; kWkyHr;rpf;Ff; fle;j 200 tUlq;fshf toprikj;jtuhd gp\g; KidtH nwhNgl; fhy;Lty; gw;wpa fl; Liu ,k;khjk; vdJ gf;fj;jpid myq; fhpf;fpd;wJ.


jkpo;nkhop tuyhw;wpNy gjptplg;gl Ntz; ba; mjidtpl jtpHf;f Kbahj xUt uhf fhy;Lnty; tpsq;Ffpd;whH. jkpopd; kWkyHr;rpf;F cj;Ntfk; nfhLj;J jkpopd; nkhop tuyhw;wpy; xU jpUg;G Kidapid> xU Gjpa rpe;jidNahl;lj;jpid ,tNu top jpwe;Jtpl;ltnud;gJ nts;spil kiyahFk;. jkpopy; Kjd; Kjypy; nkhop apaypy; xg;gpay; hPjpapy; nkhopfis mjd; ,yf;fz mbg;gilapy; Ma;T nra;Ak; ,aypidj; njhlf;fp itj;jtH vd;w ngUik ,tiuNa rhUk;. 18Mk; 19Mk; E}w;whz;L tiu ,Ue;j Mhpa Mjpf;- fj;jpdhYk; tlnkhopapd; CLUtyhYk; mwpQHfs;> fy;tpahsHfs; ahtUk; jkpo; nkhopf;F %yk; tlnkhopnad;Nw fUjp te;jdH. 1856Mk; Mz;L fhy;Lnty; mtHfshy; ntspaplg;gl;l jpuhtpl nkhop fspd; xg;gpyf;fzk; vd;w Ma;T Ehy; ntspaplg;gl;lJ. mjd; gpd;Ng jkpo; xU jdpj;Jtkhd nkhopnad;Wk; mJ ve;j nkhopapypUe;Jk; gpwf;ftpy;iynad;Wk; jkpo; jpuhtpl nkhopf; FLk;gj;jpidr; rhHe;j xU nkhopnad;w fUj;jf;fk; epiy ngw;wJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf ,d;W jkpo; nrk;nkhopahf mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;ljw;Fk; ,tuJ nkhopapy; Ma;Tk; cuk; NrHj;jJ vd;gJ epjHrdkhdJ. ,tiu xU nkhop apay; mwpQdhfTk;> eRf;fg;gl;l xLf;fg; gl;l kf;fSf;F Nrtfk; nra;Ak; xU NritahsdhfTk;> ,e;jpahtpw;F mtH mDg;gg;gl;l Fwpf;Nfhshd kjg;gpurhuKk; kjkhw;wKk; nra;Ak; kjg; NghjfuhfTk; ahtUk; mwpe;jpUe;jdH. 1877Mk; Mz;b ypUe;J jpUney;Ntyp khtl;l gp\g;ghf FUepiyg;gLj;jg;;gl;lhH. ,tiu ‘eRf;fg; gl;l xLf;fg;gl;l kf;fSf;F Kjd;Kj ypy; flikahw;wpa Ntitahsd;’ vd ‘,e;J’ gj;jphpif ,tiug; Nghw;wpg; Gfo;e; jJ. jkpo; ehL murhq;fj;jpdhy; mtH jkpOf;Fr; nra;j> rhpj;jpuj;jpy; nghwpf; fg;gl Ntz;ba Nritf;fhf QhgfhHj;j mQ;ry; Kj;jpiu ntspapl;L nfsutg; gLj;jpaJ. mj;NjhL jkpo;ehL muR khPdh flw;fiuapy; 1968Mk; Mz;L mtUf;F MSau ntz;fyr; rpiyapid epWtpaJ. mtH jkpOf;Fr; nra;j Nritapid ,d;W tiu jkpo;$W fy;tpr; r%fk; epidT$He;Nj tUfpd;wJ. jkpo; nkhop tuyhw;wpNy mtuJ ngaH nghwpf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ. ,J vd;Wk; epiyj;J epw;Fk;. ,t;thwhf jkpo;ehl;by; 53 tUlk; Kw; whd xU khWgl;l fhyepiyapy;> r%f NtWghL Mfpaw;wpdpilNa tho;e;J jdJ Nritapidj; njhlHe;jhH.


jpuhtplk; vd;w nrhw;gjj;jpid Kjypy; gad;gLj;jp mjw;F xU capNuhl;lk; nfhLj;jtH fhy;Lnty; mtHfNs. Mdhy; jpuhtplk; vd;gJ jkpo; vd;gjd; jphpG vd;gjhFk;. jkpo; ehl;bw;F jkJ rkak; gug;gTk; nkhop Mf;fpukpg;Gr; nra;Ak; Nehf;NfhL te;j rkz rkaj;jpdUk; tl nkhopahUk; jkpo; vd;gjid cr;rhpf;f Kbahky; mjidj; jpoukpo vd;Wk; jpu kpo; vd;Wk; gythwhf mioj;jdh;. ,jw;Fr; rhd;whf fp.gp. 3Mk; E}w;whz;by; rkzH fs; mikj;j ‘jpukpo rq;fk;’ vd;w xU mikg;G rhd;W gfUfpd;wJ. ,d;Wk; rpq;fstH jopio njky vd;Wk; jputpl gh\h vd;Wk; miog;gH. jkpopy; ,Ue;Nj Vida jpuhtpl nkhopfs; gpwe;jjdhy; jkpopd; xU kWnrhy;yhd jpuhtpl vd;w


xU nghJr; nrhy;ypdhy; jpuhtpl nkhop fs; vd mk;nkhopf; FLk;gj;ij fhy;Lty; ngahpl;L mioj;jJ gpw;fhyj;jpy; jkpo; ehl;by; jpuhtpl ,af;fk; vd;Dk; xU ,af;fk; tsHe;J xU MytpUl;rkhfp ,d;W Vwj;jhs 40 tUlq;fSf;F Nkyhf jpuhtplf; fl;rpfs; vd;W ngaH jhq;fpa fl;rpfNs Ml;rp nra;J tUtJ$l fhy;Lty; fhy;Nfhspl;L itj;j jpuhtplk; vd;Dk; xU nrhw;gjNkahFk;. ,jid ,uhrpf; vd;gtH 1969> Hardgrave vDk; E}y; 1965> fh.rptj;jk;gp mtHfs; 1978. MfpNahH E}y;fspYk; mwpaKbfpwJ. mj;


Ue;j Mzhjpf;fr; rKjhaj;jpy; ngz; fy;tp> ngz; tpopg;GzHT Mfpatw;wpid fhy;LtNyhL NrhHe;J nra;J tuyhdhH. mj;NjhL ,t;thW Nrit nra;tJ ,yF tpy; Nkw;$wpa kf;fis kjk; khw;w cjtpaJ. ,t;thwhd cjtpfisAk; ghJfhg;igAk; ngWk; mbkl;l kf;fs; jhq;fshfNt tpUk;gp fpwp];kt kjj;jpw;F khwpdhHfs;. ,e;j Nritfisj; njhlH e;J nra;aNtz;Lk; vd;why; jkpo; nkhop apid ,UtUk; frlwf; fw;fNtz;Lk; vd;gjid czHe;J jkpiof; fw;fj; njhlq;fpdH. ,e;j Vw;ghNl vjpHfhyj;jpy;


KUNfR ghf;fpaehjd;


gl;l rpy jtWfisAk; jpUj;jp NkYk; gy Mjhuq;fisAk; NrHj;J 1875Mk; Mz;L kPo;gjpg;Gr; nra;J ntspapl;lhH.


,tH jdJ Muk;gg; gjpg;gpy; jkpo;r; nrhw; fspy; gy rpe;jpa nkhopapd; %yf;$W vd;Wk; mj;NjhL ,e;Njh – Mhpa nkhop fspd; %yk; vd;w fUj;jpidf; nfhz;b Ue;jhH. jkpoHfs; Juhdpahtpy; ,Ue;J te;J FbNawpa J}uhdpad; ,dj;ijr; NrHe;jtHfs; vd;w fUj;jpidAk; Kd; itj;jhH. ,jid NfhT+H jdJ kWg;Gf; fl;Liuapy; Rl;bf;fhl;bAs;shH. Mdhy; ,tuJ ,uz;lhtJ gjpg;gpy; ,tH njspT ngw;W tlnkhop NtW jpuhtpl nkhopf; FLk;gk; NtW vd;w cWjpahd epiyg; ghl;bid vLj;jhH. njYq;F> fd;dlk;> kiyahsk; Mfpa %d;W nkhopfSk; tlnkhopapd; ghhpa jhf;fj;jpdhy; jdJ jpuhtpl jdpj;jd;ikapid ,oe;J tl nkhopapd;ghy; <Hf;fg;gl;L me;je;j nkhop apy; ,Ue;j mf;fhy fy;tpkhd;fs; tl nkhopapNyNa fw;gNj jkf;F caHth dJ vd;w ngha;ikahd vz;zj;jpdhy; mk;%d;W nkhopfspd; thptbtj;jpj;jpid tlnkhop rhHe;J mikj;jdH. mj;NjhL gy nrhw;fs; tlnrhy;ypy; ,Ue;J vLj;J ghtpj;J mitfis jkJ nkhopr; nrhw; fshfNt Mf;fpf; nfhz;ldH. ,jd; fhuzkhf gy INuhg;gpa mwpQHfSk; tlnkhopapy; ,Ue;Nj jkpo; njYq;F Mfpa nkhopfs; gpwe;jd vd;w Kbtpw;F te;jpUe;jdh;. Mdhy; jkpo; ehl;by; Mhpar; nry;thf;F kpFe;jpUe;jNghJk; mjpypUe;J ghJfhf;fg;gl;L jdpj;jd;ikAld; ,Ue;J te;jNj jkpOf;F chpa ngUikahFk;.


jpuhtpl nkhopfs; tlnkhopapy; ,Ue;J


NjhL ,e;j jpuhtpl ,af;fNk tsHr;rp aile;J gpuhkzuy;yhNjhH ,af;fkhf Tk; gpukzPa vjpHg;G ,af;fkhfTk; tsu yhapw;W.


fhy;Lty; ahH? ,tH 1814Mk; Mz;L If;fpa ,uhr;rpaj; jpd; ];nfhl;yhe;J ngw;NwhUf;Fg; gps; isahfg; gpwe;jhH. ,tH jd;dpr;irah fNt jdJ fy;tpapid tsHj;Jf; nfhz; lhH. mj;NjhL rka <LghL nfhz;lt uhfTk; mJgw;wpAk; gbj;J mwpe;J nfhz;lhH. ,tH fpsh];Nfh gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; jdJ gl;lg;gbg;gpidg; Kbj; jhH. mg;NghJ nkhopfspid xg;gPL nra;J Ma;T nra;Ak; fy;tpapidAk; fw;Wj; NjHe;jhH. ,tH jdJ 24tJ tajpy; ([dthp 8> 1838) xU kjj;J}jdhf yz;ld; kprdwpapd; xU cWg;gpduhf - fpwp];jt kjNghjfuhf kjuhrpw;F tUif je;jhH. Mdhy; ,tH jhd; te;j Nehf;fj;jpid tpl gd;klq;F Nritapidj; jkpoHf Sf;Fr; nra;Js;shH vd;wy; mjpy; kpif NaJk; ,y;iy. fhy;Lnty; mtHfs; 1844Mk; Mz;L ,yprh ky;l; vd;w Mq; fpyg; nghz;izj; jpUkzk; nra;jhH. ,tH jpUthq;$H kp\dhpg; Nghjfuhf tpUe;j rhs;]; ky;l; mtHfspd; kfsh thH. ,tHfsJ jpUkz ge;jj;jpd; %yk; VO Gj;jpuHfs; gpwe;jdH. Vyprh mtHfs; 40 tUlq;fSf;F Nkyhf jpUthq;$hpYk; jpUney;NtypapYk; rhjpg; ghFghl;bdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l kf;fSf;Fk; Viokf;fSf; Fk; Nrit nra;jhH. Fwpg;ghf Kjypy; ngz;fspilNa Nritnra;J mg;Nghjp


jkpioAk; Vida jpuhtpl nkhopfisAk; Ma;T nra;jjdhy; mjid epkpu itj;jJ.


nkhopahw;wy;: ,tH ,yj;jpd;> fpNuf;fk; `_g;GU> N[Hkd;> gpuQ;R> Mq;fpyk;> jkpo;> njYq;F> kiy ahsk;> JS> rk];fpUjk; Mfpa nkhop fspy; Gyik ngw;wpUe;jhH. MdhYk; Vida jpuhtpl nkhopfshshd FlF> Njhlh> Nfhjb> glfh> Nfhykp> ghH[p> eha;fp> Nfhe;jp> $> Ftp> Nfhz;lh> Nkhy;l;lh> xutd;> fl;gh> FUf;> gpu$a; Mfpa nkhopfs; gw;wp frlwf; fw;fh tpl;lhYk; ,k;nkhopfs; gw;wp mwpe;Js; sJld; mk;nkhop NgRk; kf;fis Neub ahfr; re;jpj;J mtHfs; NgRk; nkhop> mtHfsJ gof;f tof;fq;fs; Nghd;wd tw;iwj; njhpe;J itj;jpUe;jhH. ,tH jkpo;> njYq;F> kiyahsk; kw;Wk; rk];fpUjk; Mfpatw;wpid Kw;whff; fw;wwpe;jjdhNyNa ,k;nkhopfspd; %yf; $Wfs; vd;d? mk;nkhopfspd; ,yf;fz Ntw;Wikfs; xw;Wikfs; vd;gjid mtH xU nkhopapay; mwpQd; vd;w hPjpapy; gFj;J Muha;e;J jkpo;> njYq;F> fd; dlk;> kiyahsk;> JS> FlF Mfpa MWnkhopfisAk; cs;slf;fpajhf mtw;iwj; jpuhtplnkhopf; FLk;gk; vd tiuaiw nra;J mw;wpw;fhd MjhuG+H tkhd fhuz fhuzpfSld; 1856Mk; Mz;L ‘jpuhtpl nkhopfspd; xg;gpyf;fzk;’ (Comparative Grammar of Dravidian Languages) vd;Dk; tuyhw;Wr; rpwg;Gkpf;f Mq;fpy E}ypid ntspapl;L itj;jhH. gpd;G mjid NkYk; nkU$l;l> tplg;


vt;thwhf NtWgl;lJ: INuhg;gpa Vida mwpQHfs; nfhz;b Ue;j fUj;jhd njd; nkhopfshd jkpo;> njYq;F> fd;dlk;> kiyahsk; Mfpa nkhopfSf;F tlnkhopNa %yhjhuk; vd;gjid fhy;Lty; mtHfs; gpd;tUk; fhuzq;fisf; nfhz;L kWj;Jiuf;fpd; whH.


jpuhtpl nkhopfspy; tlnkhopr; rhHG ,y;yhg;gFjpNa kpFjpahFk;.


nkhopf;F mbg;gilahd jd;ik> Kd;dp iy> glHf;if Mfpa %tplg;ngaHfs;> tpidj; jphpGfs;> ngaHj; jphpGfs;> nrhy; yikg;G Kiw Kjypatw;wpy; jpuhtpl nkhopfs; tlnkhopf;F Kw;wpYk; khW gl;lJ.


INuhg;gpa mwpQHfs; ,t;tbg;gilfis Muhahky; jpuhtpl nkhopfspd; mfuhjp fisAk; tlnkhop mfuhjpfisAk; Nkw; Nghfhf mwpe;J jkpopy; gy tlnrhw;fs; cs;sjhff; $wj;jiyg;gl;ldH. Mhpa> tlnkhop Mjpf;fj;jpw;Fl;gl;l rpy jkpo;g; GytHfs; me;jr; nrhw;fs; tlnrhw;fs; vd;Nw $wpAk; ghFghLk; nra;Js;sdH. Mdhy; tlnrhw;fs; my;yhj jpuhtplr; nrhw;fNs jpuhtpl nkhopfspy; gutyhf gytifahf cs;sd.


INuhg;gpa mwpQHfs; jpUe;jhj jpuhtpl nkhopfis Muhe;J jq;fs; Muhr;rpis Nkw;nfhs;stpy;iy. Mdhy; mtHfs; me;j nkhopfis Ma;e;jpUe;jhy; mtw; wpYk; jdpj; jpuhtplr; nrhw;fNs kpFjp ahf ,Ug;gjid czHe;jpUg;gH. tlnrhw; fyg;G mwNtapy;iy my;yJ kpfkpf mhpjhfNt fhzg;Lfpd;wd vd;gjid


66k; gf;fk; ghu;f;f...


2011


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