This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
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jha;tPL


• etk;gu; FLk;g td;KiwAk; Foe;ijfisj; Jd;GWj;JjYk;


Xt;nthU 10 nrf;fz;LfSf;Fk; xd;W vd;w tPjj;jpy;; gps;isfSf;Fj; jPq;fpioj; jikf;fhd Kiwg;ghLfs; gjpthfpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. kpfNkhrkhd Jw;gpu Nahfq;fs; my;yJ jfhjKiwapy; gps; isfis elj;Jjy; vd;gd nghJthd- itahff; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.





59.0% Foe;ijfs; ftdpg;gpd;ikahy; Jd;gkDgtpj;Js;sdu;;





10.8% Foe;ijfs; clypay; Jd;GWj; jYf;F MshfpAs;sdu;;.





7.6% Foe;ijfs; ghypay; Jd;GWj;j Yf;F MshfpAs;su;





4.2% Foe;ijfs; jtwhf elj;jYf;F MshfpAs;sdu; vd;Dk; jty;fis Gs;sptpguj;jpizf;fsk; ntspapl;Ls;sJ.


ftdaPdj;jpw;Fk; jtwhd gad;gLj;jYf;Fk;


,yf;fhFk; rpwhu;fs;: Jw;gpuNahfj;jpd; tpisthf gps;isfs; ,wg;gJ kpfTk; ftiyf;FupaJ. Xt; nthU Mz;Lk; jtwhd gad;ghL> Jw; gpuNahfk; ftdpg;gpd;ik fhuzkhf ,we;j gps;ifspd; vz;zpf;ifia 2007Mz;Lg; Gs;sptpguk; fhl;Lfpd;wJ. 


1.760 gps;isfs; jtwhf elj;Jg;gl;- lik kw;Wk; ftdpf;fg;glhikahy; ,we;Js;sdu;.





$l;Lnkhj;jkhf 100>000 gp;s;isfspy; 2.35 tpfpjkhd gps;isfs; ,we;Js;sdu;.





34.1% gps;isfs; ftdpf;fg;glhik my;yJ ghJfhg;Gf;Fiwtpdhy; ,wg; Gf;F MshfpAs;sdu;.





ftdpg;gPdk;> J\;gpuNahfk; njhlu;ghf gps;isfspy; 75.7% khdtu;fs; 4 tajpw;Ff; Fiwe;jtu;fshtu;.





xU tajpw;Ff;Fiwe;jtu;fspy; 100.000f;F 18.85 tpfpjkhd Mz;Foe;ijfs; ,we; Js;sdu;.





ngz;Foe;ijfspy; 15.39 tpfpjkhd- tu;fs; ,j;jifa ghjpg;Gf;fshy; ,we;Js;sdu;.


gpd;tUk; fhuzpfshy; gps;isf; ghjpf;fg; gl;Ls;sikapidf; fPNo cs;s Gs;sp tpuk; tpupthff; fhl;Lfpd;wJ. 


ftdaPdk; 53.5 %  clypay; jPq;fpiog;G 22.7%


 ghypay; uPjpahd jPq;fpiog;G 11.5%  czu;rptrg;gLjyhy; 6%  kUj;Jt cjhrPdk; 6%


ghypay; td;Kiwapdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l rpwhu;fspy; mjpfkhdtu;fs; ngz;gps;- isfs; Mtu;. mtu;fspy; %d;wpy; ,uz;L gq;fpdu; 18 tajpw;F cl;gl;l guhaj;jp dNu. vdpDk; rl;l eltbf;iff;fhf Kiw aPL nra;jtu;fspy; Vopy; xU gq;fpdu;


Fiwa xt;nthU 1000 gps;isfSf;Fk; 22 tprhuizfs; tPjk; Nkw;nfhs;sg; gl;Ls;sd. ,tw;Ws; fpl;lj;jl;l 45% Foe; ijfs; jPq;fpiog;ghf Foe;ijfs; eyd; Ngz; gzpahsu;fspdhy; fz;lwpag;gl;- Ls;sJ.


If;fpa ehLfs; mikaj;jpd; 2000 fzpg; gPl;L mwpf;ifapd; gb 15 mfitf;Ff; Fiwe;j 57>000 gps;isfs; nfhiyapdhy; ,we;Js;sdu;. ,jpy; 0-4 tajpw;Fk; ,ilg; gl;l Foe;ijfs; 5-14tajpw;F ,ilg;- gl;NlhupYk; ghu;f;f ,uz;L klq;fhtu;. jiyapy; Vw;gl;l fhaq;fNs kuzj;jpw; fhd $ba fhuzkhfTs;sJ. ,jw;F mLj;jgbahf fPo; tapw;wpy; Vw;gLk; fhaq;fSk; %r;Rj; jpzwYkhFk;. kpf mjpfkhd gps;isfs; kuzk; rk;gtpf; fhjJk; ftdaPdkhdJkhd jPq;fpiog; Gf;fshFk;. 2002Mk; Mz;L cyfehL fspd; td;KiwAk; RfhjuhjKk; gw;wpa mwpf;ifapd; gb 18 mfitf;Fl;gl;l Mz;fspy; 8%Kk; ngz;fspy; 25%Kk; ghypay; rk;ge;jkhd jPq;fpiog;Gf;F MshfpAs;sdu; vdj;njupatUfpd;wJ.


,d;W If;fpa ehLfs; mikaj;jpd; rhrdj;jpd; gb gy ehLfs; Foe;ijfs; jPq;fpiog;Gf;Fk;> ghuhKfj;Jf;Fk; vjpuhf rl;lq;fis Mf;fp ghJfhg;Gj; ju elt- bf;iffs; vLj;Js;sd. ,jd;fhuzkhf


njhlu; - 03


MW tajpw;F cl;gl;l guhaj;jpdu; vd; gJk; fUj;jpw;nfhs;sj;jf;fJ. ,tu;fspy; ghypay; td;Kiwf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;L ghYwT nfhs;sg;gltu;fspy; 12 tajpw;F cl;gl;ltu;fs; 90 tpOf;fhl;bdu; vd;gJk; mtjhdpf;fj;jf;fJ.


,t;tpj fzpg;gPl;L Kiwfs; fdba Foe; ijfs; fhg;gfq;fSk; Nkw;nfhz;Ls;sd. fdba rk;gtq;fs; gbg;gpidapd; mwpf; ifapd;gb 1998y; 7>000f;F Nkw;gl;l Foe; ijfs; eyd;Ngz; tprhuizfs; ehl shtpa uPjpapy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sd. 135>573 Foe;ijfs; jtwhf guhkupf;fg; gl;ljw;fhd tprhuizfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg; gl;Ls;sd. ,Nj fhyg;gFjpapy; Vwf;


Foe;ijfs; jpUk;gTk; jz;bf;fg;gLjy;> ghypay; Jd;GWj;jy;fSf;F Mshjy; Nghd;wdtw;why; kPz;Lk; ghjpf;fg;glhk Yk;> jz;bf;fg;glhkYk; ghJfhf;f ebt bf;iffs; Nkw;nfhs;tjD}lhf ,;t;tpj gps;isfs;kPjhd jPq;fpioj;jYk;> ghuh Kfkhd epiyAk; Fiwtile;JtUtjhf mwpf;iffs; vLj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wd.


FLk;gq;fSld; njhlu;Gnfhs;StNjhL ghlrhiyfs;> r%f mikg;Gf;fs; Nghd;wtw;Wld; kpf mjpfstpy; <Lgl itg;gjw;fhd eltbf;iffs;> ,f; Fw;wr; nraiyf; Fiwf;Fk; rhj;jpaj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;sik Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.


2001Mk; Mz;L gps;isfs; jPq;fpiof; fg;gLjYf;Fk; ftdaPdj;Jf;Fs;shjYf; Fkhd gy;Nehf;Ff;nfhz;l xUq;fpizf; fg;gl;l Nehf;NfhL Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l ,U ehl;fs; cyfshtpa kfhehl;by; I.eh. nghJr;nrayhsu; Nfhgp mdhd; mtu;fs;; kpfj; jPtpukhf <Lgl Kd;te;j ik Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhFk;. ,J cyfpd; gy ehLfspd; ftdj;ij <u;j;Js;sJ.


,d;W gyehLfs; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; Foe; ijfSf;Fg; ghJfhg;gspf;f Kd;te;Js;s NghjpYk; gy ehLfspy; ,d;Dk; ,it $basT ghjpg;igf; nfhz;Ls;sdth fNt fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,t;tpj jd;ikf isf; nfhz;L tpsq;Fk; ehLfsp;y; ,d;W ,e;jpah Kjdpiy tfpg;gjidg; Gs;sp tpguq;fs; vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfpd;wd.


fdlhtpy; jPq;fpiof;fg;gLk; Foe;ijf isg; ghJfhf;Fk; nghWg;gpid fdba Foe;ij cjtp epWtfk; nghWg;Ngw;Wg; ghJfhj;J tUfpd;wJ. Foe;ijfs; fhg; gfq;fspy; thOfpd;w Foe;ijfs; rpy epge;jidfSf;Ff; fl;Lg;gl;ltu;fsh fNt thoNtz;bAs;sJ. 


mtu;fspd; gzpahsUld; njhlu;e;J njhlu;G itj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;





ghlrhiyf;F xOq;fhfr; nry;YjYk; tPl;Lg;ghlq;fisr; nra;jYk;





xg;gilf;fg;gl;Ls;s ghJfhg;gspf;Fk; FLk;gj;jpdUld; xt;nthU ehSf;F Kupa jpl;lj;jpidg; gw;wpf; fye;Jiu ahlNtz;Lk; my;yJ tPl;by; ,y;yhj Ntis vq;F epw;gJ vd;gJgw;wpj; njuptpf;fNtz;Lk;


 re;jpg;Gf;fs; gw;wpj; njuptpf;fNtz;Lk; 


 vidNahupd; jdpj;Jtj;ijg; NgZjy;> 





vidatu;fs;> maytu;fs;> clik- fis kjpj;jy;>


Mz;> ngz;> fyhr;rhu> kj> ,d> epw> NtWghLfis kjpj;jy;>


tajpw;F Vw;g tPl;bYs;s Ntiyfs; rk;gtq;fspy; cjTjy;>


 cly; eyj;ijg; NgZjy;> 


jq;fs; eltbf;iffSf;Fk;> jq;fs; kPJk; nghWg;ghftpUj;jy;>


- j. rptghY -


Nghd;w nghWg;Gf;fSk;> flikfSk; fhg; gfj;jpy; thOk;NghJ xt;nthU gps;is aplKk; vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLfpd;wJ. mJ jtpu mtu;fs; Jd;GWj;jg;glNth> jPq;fpiof; fg;glNth khl;lhu;fs;; vd;Dk; cWjp nkhopAk; mtu;fSf;F tsq;fg;gLfpd;wJ.


cyf Rfhjhu mikaj;jpd; fzpg;gPl;bd; gb gps;isfSf;Fj; jPq;F tpioj;jy; ehl;Lf;F ehL> NtWgl gy;NtWfhuzp fs; fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;sd. tsu;r;rpaile;j ehLfSf;Fk; tsu;r;rp ngw;WtUk; ehL fSf;FkpilNa NtWghLfs; fz;lwpag; gl;Ls;sJ. kpff; $ba tUthiag;ngW fpd;w ehLfspy; 5 tajpw;Fl;gl;l xt; nthU 100>000 gps;isfSf;Fk; 2.2tpfp jkhd Mz;gps;isfSk;> 1.8tpfpjkhd ngz;gps;isfSk; nfhiyf;F gypahfp- whu;fs;. ,J Fiwe;j tUthAs;s ehL fspy; 2 my;yJ 3 klq;F mjpfkhdjh ff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. mjhtJ 6.1 tpfpj khd Mz;gps;isfSk;> 5.1 tpfpjkhd ngz;gps;isfSk; nfhiy nra;ag;gLfpd; whu;fs; vdTk; ,J Mgpupf;f gpuhe;jp- aj;jpNyNa kpf mjpfk; vd;gjidAk; mjhtJ> 17.9 tpfpjkhd Mz;gps;is fSk;> 12.7 tpfpjkhd ngz;gps;isfSk; nfhiynra;ag;gLk; Ju;g;ghf;fpa epiy fhzg;gLfpd;wJ vd;Dk; mjpu;r;rp jUk; jftiy 2000 Mz;L cyf Rfhjhu jhgd mwpf;if vLj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wJ. Mdhy; INuhg;gh> kj;jpajiug; gpuNjrj; jpd; fPo;g;ghfk; vd;gd kpff; Fiwe;js thd Gs;sptpguj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;ik Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.


Foe;ijfs; vq;fspd; vjpu;fhyk;> Foe; ijfspy; 19 taJf;Fl;gl;l gpuptpdu; cyfpy; 2.3 kpy;ypad;fshf cs;sdu; vd;gJ cyf Rfhjuhu jhgdj;jpd; fzpg; gPL. Foe;ijfspd; tpUj;jpf;Fk; jg;gpg; gpisj;jYf;Fk; cjtp Njit. ,tw;Ws; ghJfhg;G> cly;eyk;> J}a;ikahd #o;epiy vd;gd mbg;gilahdit.


Foe;ijfs; #oy; jPq;fpd; tpisthf kpfNkhrkhd cly;ey mghaj;ij vjpu; Nehf;Ffpd;whu;fs;. cyFf;Fr; Rikahf mike;Js;s Neha;fspdhy; Ie;J tajpw; Fl;gl;l gps;isfspy; 40%f;F Nkw;gl;l tu;fs; #oy;> Rw;whly; fhuzpfspdhy; ghjpg;Gf;F cs;shfpwhu;fs;. ,J cyf kf;fs; njhifapy; 10% vdf; fzpg;;gplg; gl;Ls;sJ. Rw;whly; mghaf; fhuzpfs; mbf;fb xNuNru ,lk;ngWfpd;wJ. gps; isfspd; Rw;whlypdhy; tUk; Mgj;Jf; fs; gw;wpa Gjpa fUj;Jf;fs; Kd;itf; fg;gLfpd;wd. gps;isfspd; Mgj;Jf;f isj; jtpu;j;J mtu;fis r%fj;jpw;F cjTk; tifapy; cly;eyKs;stu;fshf


tsuitj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. sivapalu.t@thaiveedu.com


2011


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