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jha;tPL


• etk;gu; 2011 fdbaj; jkpo; KjpNahupd; ey;tho;T - 4 r%f cstpay; tplaq;fs;


FLk;g-r%f cstpay; tplaq;fs;


,Jtiu fdbaj; jkpo; KjpNahHfspd; ey;tho;T njhlHghd FLk;g r%f cs tpay; tplaq;fs; gw;wpa tiutpyf;fzq;- fs;. Vw;fdNt nra;ag;gl;l Ma;T KbTfs; Nghd;wtw;iwg; ghHj;Njhk;. NkYk; nfhs; if hPjpahd vLj;Jiuf;fg;gl;l tplaq;f spd; mbg;gilapy; jkpo; KjpNahH ey; tho;T gw;wp mikj;Jf; nfhz;l vz;zf; fUr; rl;lfj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;; Nkw;nfhs; sg;gl;l Ma;tpy; fpilj;j jfty;fspd; gFg;gha;itAk; fye;JiuahbNdhk;.


,g;gFjpapy; ,t;tha;T Nehf;fq;fspd;gb ehk; fz;lwpe;j KjpNahH ey;to;T tplaq; fisAk;> mjw;Fj; Njitahd FLk;g> r%f Kd; epge;jidfs; gw;wpAk; njhFj;J Nehf;fp> mjd; mbg;gilapy; ehk; vjpH fhyj;jpy; KjpNahH ey;tho;Tf;fhf Nkw; nfhs;sf; $ba nraw;ghLfs;> eil Kiwfs; gw;wpAk; fye;JiuahLNthk;.


Ma;tpy; fz;lwpe;jitfs;: nghJthf jkpo; KjpNahHfs; jkJ tho; tpid> cly; MNuhf;fpak;> FLk;gg;gp- izg;G> cwT> xw;Wik> r%f murpay; ];jpug;ghL> fyhr;rhur; Rje;jpuk; Nghd; wit njhlHghd Njitfspd; g+Hj;jp my;yJ epiwthfTk;. mjd; %yk; cU thfpd;w jpUg;jpahfTk;> kfpo;T ghJfhg; GzHthfTk; ,dq;fhz;fpd;wdH. Fwpg;ghf Nehf;Fk; NghJ nghUshjhu jd;dpiw- Tf;F NkyhfTk; rkhe;jukhfTk; czHT hPjpahd epiwitAk; jpUg;jpiaAk; Ntz;b epw;fpd;wdH.


FLk;g cwTk;> gpizg;Gk; mjNdhL $ba $l;LzHT xj;Jiog;Gk; mtHfSf;F kpf Kf;fpakhd NjitahfTk; cs;sJ. ,J Jiztu;> gps;isfs;> Ngug; gps;isfs; vd;w tl;lj;jpw;Fs; kpFjpahfTk;> rNfh juHfs; cw;wH vd;w tl;lj;jpw;Fs; tphp- tile;Jk; nry;fpd;wJ. NkYk; CutH> gFjp> jha;epyk; vd;w tifapYk; njhlHr; rpahd gw;Wjy;fisAk; mjd; ghw;gl;l jpUg;jpfisAk; Ntz;b epw;fpd;wdu;. ,e; jg; gpizg;Gf;fs;> gw;Wjy;fspd; ,og;G jdpg;gl;l tifapYk; FO hPjpahfTk; vy;yhj; jkpo; KjpNahHfspd; ey;tho;- tpYk; jhf;fj;jpidf; nfhz;bUg;gjhy; mtw;iw ,og;gPL nra;ag;glNtz;ba Njit (Compensatory needs) vOfpd;wJ. ,e;j czHT hPjpahd ,og;gPl;Lj; Njit fisg; gpd;dH tphpthf Nehf;FNthk;. ,e;j tifapy; ,t;TzHTj; Njitfs; gioa r%f #o;epiyia tpl NtWgl;l jhfTk; GjpajhfTk; kPsf; fl;likf;f Ntz;ba mtrpaKk; vOfpd;wJ.


Mgj;jkhd #o;epiyfspy; tho;e;jik> eype;j milahsk; nfhz;bUe;jik (Group Vulnerability) Nghd;wd xU FO rhHe;j tpNrl czHTj; NjitfisAk; Ntz;b epw;fpd;wd. epd;Wgbf;ff; $ba cs Mw;wy;fs;> ghJfhg;GzHT> gaj;jp ypUe;J tpLjiy> clik czu;T Nghd;w


Njitfs; ,t;tifapy; milag;gl Ntz;bAs;sd. NkYk; fl;Lf;Nfhg;G- zHTk; epjp epahaq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; tsHj;njLf;fg;gl Ntz;ba NjitAk; ,q;Fs;sJ.


kw;nwhU tifapy; Fiwe;j fzpg;Gf;Fhpa epiy> jq;fp tho Ntz;ba epiy> J\;gpuNahfq;fSf;F ,yf;fhff; $ba jd;ik> kdtYtpoe;j epiy Nghd;wd jdpg;gl;l tifapyhd Mgj;Jf;Fl;gLk; jd;ikf;F gq;fspf;fpd;wd (Individual Vulnerability) ,e;j tifapy;> jdpg;gl;l czHT hPjpahd Ez;zwpT tplaq;fshd tise;J nfhLf;Fk; jd;ik> mwpTj;jpwd;> Ez;zwpTj;Jz;ly;fs;. Ra nghWkhdj; ij / cUthf;Fk; / ];jpug;gLj;Jtjw;fhd tplaq;fs; Nghd;wd milag;gl Ntz;- bAs;sd.


FO epiyapYk; jdpg;gl;l tifapYk; Mgj;jpw;Fl;gLk; jd;ikapypUe;J vOfpd;w Njitfs; (Vulnerability needs) gioa FbngaH #oypypUe;Jk; te;Js;sd. Gjpa #oypy; cUthf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhz;Lk; tUfpd;wd. ,j;Njitfs; njhlHr;rpahd jd;ikAilaJk; tsHfpd;w jd;ikAil- aJkhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,e;jtifapy; ,UNtW tpjkhd czHTj; Njitfs;> ,UNtW tpjkhd #oYf;F mikthf milahsg;gLj;jg;glf; $bajhfTs;sd.


Gjpa r%f mikg;Gr; #oypy; FLk;g- r%f cshPjpahf kPsepiyg;gLj;jpf; nfhs; tjw;fhd Njitfs; (Re-establishment needs) gyTk; KjpNahHfs; ey;tho;Tf;fhf; epiwT nra;ag;gl Ntz;bAs;sd. kPs epiyg;gLj;JjYf;fhd KjpNahH cstp ay; Njitfs; FOhPjpahdjhTk; jdpahs; epiyapYk;> r%fj;jhgd hPjpahdjhfTk; milahsk; fhzg;glyhk;. FOepiy> r%fj;jhgd hPjpahd Njitfs;> r%f fyhr;rhu hPjpahd Gjpa $l;bidg;Gfs;> FOf;fs; cUthf;fk;> tiyg;gpd;dy;fs; cUthf;fk;> ek;gpf;iffs; gw;Wjy;fspd; fl;likg;G> gy;r%f fyhr;rhu <Lghl;L epiy Nghd;wtw;Wld; njhlHghdjhf cs;sd.


jdpahs; kPsepiyg;gLj;jy; Njitfs; r%f cstpay; hPjpahd Gjpa #oYf; Fhpa ,irthf;fj; NjitfshfTk; (Adaptive needs) tpsq;fpf;nfhs;sg;glyhk;. Gjpa fz;Nzhl;lq;fs; cUthf;Fjy;> rk;gpujhaq;fs;> tpOkpaq;fis fl;likj; jy;> gy;gz;ghl;baiy tpsq;fp Vw;Wf; nfhs;Sjy;> ,urpj;jy; nfsutpj;jhy; njhlHghd kdg;ghq;Ffis cUthf;Fjy;> Gjpa fyhr;ru FwpaPl;L gbtq;fis cUthf;Fjy; Nghd;wtw;Wld; njhlHghd Njitfshf ,dq;fhzg;glyhk;.


Nkw;$wpa tplaq;fisj; njhLj;J Nehf; Fk; NghJ jkpo; KjpNahH FLk;g-r%f cstpay; Njitfis ehd;F njhFjpf; Fs; ehk; cs;slf;fyhk;.


 ,og;gPl;Lj; Njitfs; (Compensatory needs) 


Mgj;jpw;Fl;gLk; jd;ik njhlu;ghd Njitfs; (Vulnerability needs )





kPs;epiyg;gLj;Jjy; Njitfs; (Re- establishments needs)


 ,irthf;fj; Njitfs; (Adaptive needs)


Nkw;Fwpj;j Njitfs; midj;Jk; jdp ahs; epiyapYk;> FLk;g-r%ff; FO epiy apYk; Nehf;fg;gl;L kpf tphpthf;fTk; El;gkhfTk; tiuaWf;fg;gl Ntz;ba mtrpaKs;sJ.


Njitfis miltjw;F mtrpakhd


r%f Kd; epge;jidfs;: nghJthf cw;gj;jp (production), kW cw;gj;jp (reproduction), fyhr;rhug; gup- khw;wk; (cultural transmission), jPu;khdk; vLf;Fk; Rje;jpuk; (freedom of decision making) Nghd;wtw;Wf;fhd tha;g;Gf;fSk; trjpfSk; fhzg;gLjy; Mfpad cyf- shtpa Kd;epge;jidfshf Vw;Wf; nfhs; sg;gbUf;fpd;wd. vdpDk; ,t;tplaq;fs; jdpahs;> fUf;FLk;g myF> Ez; r%ff; FO> rKjhaf;FO> ngUk; r%fk; Nghd;w kl;lq;fspy; fhzg;gLjy; KjpNahHfspd; ey;tho;Tj; Njitfs; miltjw;F mt rpakhfpd;wJ. rpy Ntisfspy; rhjkhd Rje;jpu cupikfSld;> rhjfkhd gf;f rhHG khw;W Vw;ghLfSk; mtrpakhfpd; wJ. r%f Kd;epge;jidfisj; jPHkhdk; nra;Ak; NghJ ey;tho;Tj; Njitfis nghJthf Gwepiy Nehf;fpapypUe;Jk; (OWB-objective wellbeing), jdpg;gl;l egu;


,og;G


cwtpdH ,og;G clikfs; ,og;G chpikfs; ,og;G


cwTfis> Ciug;gphpjy;


Mgj;jpw;Fl;gLk;jd;ik (FOepiy)


eype;j milahsk;/ rpWghd;ik/ jkpou;/ ngz;fs;


gd;Kf XJf;fy; - rhjpak; /Vo;ik


MNuhf;fpakhd r%fj;njhlHG tiyaikg;Gf;fs;


Mgj;jpw;Fl;gLj;jd;ik (jdpahs; epiy)


Ra fzpg;ig ghjpf;Fk; epyik njhlHghd gak;


jq;fp thOk; epiy


nghJthd kdtYtpog;G epiy gd;Kf J\;gpuNahfk; /xJf;Fjy;


Njitfs;


Ez;zwpTj; J}z;ly;> rhjf rpe;jid RaKfhikj;Jtj; jpwd;


nghJ Nritj; jfty; ghpkhw;wk;


Ez;zwpTj;J}z;ly; / gy;ypd r%f <LghL


Ry;gpfh ,];khapy;


fs; my;yJ FOf;fs; kl;lj;jpy; mfep iy Nehf;fpapypUe;Jk; (SWB- subjective wellbeing) ghHf;f Ntz;bAs;sJ. Vnddpy; ey;tho;T jdpkdpjhpd;> FOtpd; RajpUg;jp apdhYk; kfpo;r;rpapdhYk; jPHkhdpf;fg; gLfpd;w tplakhfTk; cs;sJ vd;gijf; fUj;jpw; nfhs;Sjy; Ntz;Lk;.


jkpo; KjpNahH


ey;tho;Tf;fhd nraw;ghLfs;: fdbaj; jkpo; KjpNahHfs; ey;tho;tpid Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd nraw;ghLfis tbtikf;Fk; NghJ Nkw;Fwpj;j ehd;F njhFjpfSf;Fs; mlq;Fk; VjhtJ Njit fis ikakhf itj;Nj mikf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. Njitfs; kpfj; njspthfTk; tphpthfTk; ,dq;fhzg;gl;L tiuaiw nra;J nfhs;sg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. Njit- fspd; tifg;ghLfs; Njitfisj; njsp thf milahsg;gLj;jp mwptjw;fhf Nkw; nfhs;sg;gLfpd;w NghJk; Fwpg;gpl;l Njit xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l tifg;ghl;LfFs;; mlq;FtjhfTk; mikayhk;. gpd;tUk; ml;ltizapy;;> jkpo; KjpNahHfshy; ,dq;fhzg;gLfpd;w gpujhd FLk;g-r%f cstpay; NjitfSf;Fk;; mtw;iw miltjw;F tbtikf;ff;;$ba nraw; ghLfSf;Fk; rpy cjuzq;fshFk;.


njhlu;jy; 102k; gf;fk; Njitfs;


Jf;f Mw;Wg;gLj;Jjy; / r%fj;njhlHG tiyaikg;Gf;fs;


Ez;dwpTj; jpwd; / rhjf rpe;jid


Ez;dwpTj; jpwd; / gpur;rid jPu;f;Fk; jpwd;


njhlHghlyj;jd; / FO czHTUthf;fk;


Njitfs;


mgj;jhd #o;epyikf;Fs; tho;e;jik fUj;Jr; Rje;jpuj;jpw;fhd tha;g;G / MNuhf;fpakhd r%fj;njhlHG tiyaikg;Gf;fs;


Ez;zwpTj; J}z;ly; /tpopg;GzHT


r%f nraw;ghLfspy; <LgLjy; /tha;g;Gf;fs;


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