This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.

conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (PreCISe study): a randomised, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial. Lancet 2009;374(9700):1503–11.

4. Kala M et al. B cells from glatiramer acetate- treated mice suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Exp Neurol 2010;221(1):136–45.

5. Pul R et al. Glatiramer acetate increases phagocytic activity of human monocytes in vitro and in multiple sclerosis patients. PLoS One 2012;7(12):e51867.

6. Jung S et al. Induction of IL-10 in rat peritoneal macrophages and dendritic cells by glatiramer acetate. J Neuroimmunol 2004;148(1-2):63–73.

7. Pul R et al. Glatiramer acetate modulates TNF-alpha and IL-10 secretion in microglia and promotes their phagocytic activity. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2011;6(3):381–8.

8. Flodstrom M et al. The natural killer cell – friend or foe in autoimmune disease? Scand J Immunol 2002;55(5):432–41.

9. Hong J et al. Induction of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells by copolymer-I through activation of transcription factor Foxp3. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005;102(18):6449–54.

10. Aharoni R et al. Glatiramer acetate reduces Th-17 inflammation and induces regulatory T-cells in the CNS of mice with relapsing-remitting or chronic EAE. J Neuroimmunol 2010;225(1-2):100–11.

11. Tennakoon DK et al. Therapeutic induction of regulatory, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in multiple sclerosis. J Immunol 2006;176(11):7119–29.

12. Teitelbaum D et al. Antibodies to glatiramer acetate do not interfere with its biological functions and therapeutic efficacy. Mult Scler 2003;9(6):592–9.

13. Sarchielli P et al. Production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by mononuclear cells of patients with multiple sclerosis treated with glatiramer acetate, interferon- beta 1a, and high doses of immunoglobulins. Mult Scler 2007;13(3):313–31.


14. Aharoni R et al. Magnetic resonance imaging characterization of different experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models and the

therapeutic effect of glatiramer acetate. Exp Neurol 2013;240:130–44.

15. Aharoni R. The mechanism of action of glatiramer acetate in multiple sclerosis and beyond. Autoimmun Rev 2013;12(5):543–53.

16. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Clinical pharmacology and biopharmaceutics review: glatiramer acetate [online]. www.accessdata.fda. gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2001/020622_S015_ COPAXONE_INJECTION_AP.pdf

17. Carter NJ, Keating GM. Glatiramer acetate: a review of its use in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and in delaying the onset of clinically definite multiple sclerosis. Drugs 2010;70(12):1545–77.

18. Teva Pharmaceuticals. Copaxone 20mg/ml, Solution For Injection, Pre-Filled Syringe. www. (accessed March 2016).

19. Bornstein MB et al. A pilot trial of Cop 1 in exacerbating-remitting multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 1987;317(7):408–11.

20. Johnson KP et al. Copolymer 1 reduces relapse rate and improves disability in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results of a phase III multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. The Copolymer Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. Neurology 1995;45(7):1268–76.

21. Ford CC et al. A prospective open-label study of glatiramer acetate: over a decade of continuous use in multiple sclerosis patients. Mult Scler 2006;12(3):309–20.

22. Ford C et al. Continuous long-term immunomodulatory therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis: results from the 15-year analysis of the US prospective open-label study of glatiramer acetate. Mult Scler 2010;16(3):342–50.

23. Mikol DD et al. Comparison of subcutaneous interferon beta-1a with glatiramer acetate in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (the REbif vs Glatiramer Acetate in Relapsing MS Disease [REGARD] study): a multicentre, randomised, parallel, open-label trial. Lancet Neurol 2008;7(10):903–14.

24. O’Connor P et al. 250 microg or 500 microg

interferon beta-1b versus 20 mg glatiramer acetate in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a prospective, randomised, multicentre study. Lancet Neurol 2009;8(10):889–97.

25. Comi G, Filippi M, Wolinsky JS. European/ Canadian multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of the effects of glatiramer acetate on magnetic resonance imaging--measured disease activity and burden in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. European/Canadian Glatiramer Acetate Study Group. Ann Neurol 2001;49(3):290–7.

26. Wolinsky JS et al. Copaxone’s effect on MRI-monitored disease in relapsing MS is reproducible and sustained. Neurology 2002;59(8):1284–6.

27. Rovaris M et al. Long-term follow-up of patients treated with glatiramer acetate: a multicentre, multinational extension of the European/ Canadian double-blind, placebo-controlled, MRI-monitored trial. Mult Scler 2007;13(4):502–8

28. Lublin FD et al. Randomized study combining interferon and glatiramer acetate in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2013;73(3):327–40.

29. Khan O et al. Three times weekly glatiramer acetate in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2013;73(6):705–13.

30. Devonshire V et al. The Global Adherence Project (GAP): a multicenter observational study on adherence to disease-modifying therapies in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol 2011;18(1):69–77.

31. Zwibel H et al. A multicenter study of the predictors of adherence to self-injected glatiramer acetate for treatment of relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 2011;258(3):402–11.

32. Anderson G et al. Tolerability and safety of novel half milliliter formulation of glatiramer acetate for subcutaneous injection: an open-label, multicenter, randomized comparative study. J Neurol 2010;257(11):1917–23.

33. Anderson J et al. Demonstration of equivalence of a generic glatiramer acetate (Glatopa™). J Neurol Sci 2015;359:24–34.

Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24