This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
swimming pools & water treatment


LAST year, an 11-year-old boy drowned in a public pool while holidaying in the Dordogne in France after his leg became trapped in the suction of the pool’s only main drain. The pool had recently undergone refurbishment, but was not fitted with a second main drain which would have prevented the child’s death. Alternatively, an anti-vacuum device could have been fitted; which would have instantly released the boy. Every year, thousands of families swim in

hotel, leisure centre and private pools without realising there may be a danger in the pool. When a child dies in a pool, the accident is most often attributed to ‘drowning’ without revealing that a child could have been trapped by the single main drain in that pool. Entrapment is preventable. Pools need two main drains to avoid the danger of entrapment. So, what causes entrapment? The

primary reason is the lack of two main drains in the bottom of the pool. When a bather gets too close to a single main drain they are pulled onto the drain and become trapped by tremendous pump suction and it is almost impossible to break free. Experiments show that it takes 225kgs of weight to release an object trapped on a single drain. Adoption of relatively

inexpensive measures would ensure that pools are safer. The 2012 US Consumer Product Safety

Commission report records 106 entrapment accidents between 1999 and 2011. This includes 12 fatalities and 89 people who suffered hospitalisation. The majority of these cases involved under 18 year olds. Tragic stories are easy to find. For example, six-year-old Zachery Chon who died after being trapped by the arm; 33-year-old John Van Hoy who became trapped in a spa at Sandals Royal Bahamian Resort in Nassau and a 14-year- old girl who died in Tunisia after jumping into the pool. The last recorded UK incident occurred in Runnymede when a young girl was disembowelled. Pool industry figures estimate that there

are 13 million swimming pools in Europe and 500,000 in the UK covering both the private and commercial market. This includes schools, municipal, hotels, sports centres, holiday camps and hydrotherapy pools. However, many operators of pools in

hotels, holiday parks and leisure centres shy away from closing a pool for remedial work because it is a major undertaking involving closing and draining the pool, installing the second outlet, refilling the pool, chemical

of entrapment

The design of some pools are putting swimmers at risk. More needs to be done to prevent entrapment, says health and safety expert, Allen J. Wilson.

treatment and re-heating the water. Newly introduced UK and European

standards exist to ensure pools are equipped with two main drains, but many operators sidestep this requirement. In the UK, modern pools should be built to comply with BSEN 15288 and SPATA standards take into account the need for two drains and where necessary an anti- vacuum system fitted. This responds within a millisecond to any increase in filter pump suction, releasing a trapped bather from life-threatening suction. Typically installing an anti-vacuum

system on a private pool should cost no more than £1,600. This involves modification to the pipework of the main circulation pump, which takes a few hours. A commercial installation could cost more due to the increased size of the discharge pipework and would normally involve more than one main circulation pump. Estimated cost is around £3,000 depending on site conditions. This action will prevent the risk of being trapped in a drain and make swimming pools safer. 49

Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68