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INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT


in Samoa the Chinese have built facilities and received fishing rights. “The next step could be that China will


invest further in larger infrastructure, such as airports, which can then form a base for a sporting event bid. The airport will serve the Chinese aim of providing a way to improve communication with a country, while for the bidding country it will provide a way to improve infrastructure to the level expected from, say, an Olympic host city. I wouldn’t be surprised if one of the countries in which China has invested would win a major competition to host, simply due to the level of investment that they have attracted." There can, however, be a problematic


side to the Chinese method. What happens to the large scale venues once they have been built and the Games are over? Will there be high enough demand to use the international competition standard venues? “Chinese investment is welcome in so


many countries and is contributing to economic development. Capital is provided by the Chinese but not usually the revenue cost," Casey says. "The age-old problem of what do you do with these spaces after the event persists. For example, in Angola there were five new stadia built and most of them are not being used to optimum capacity. This is as much an issue of the demands placed on the host by the event owner as the source of capital funds."


End results So what does the emergence of new players on the international sports stage mean to the established sporting nations? Nations in Europe and the Americas which may have some of the infrastructure already in place to host major games and a strong sports hinterland. Casey predicts that many of them could simply give up


60 Sports Management Handbook 2014-2015 Chinese stadium diplomacy at work in Angola, where five new venues have been built MADE IN CHINA


The first wave of China-funded stadia were completed in the 1980s and by 2010, more than 50 stadia had been built in Africa alone.


Stadia built using Chinese money since 2005 include:


Africa (10) ■ Angola 5 ■ Cameroon 1 ■ Cape Verde 1 ■ Central African Republic 1 ■ Malawi 1 ■ Mozambique 1


Caribbean (5) ■ Antigua 1 ■ Bahamas 1 ■ Dominica 1 ■ Grenada 1 ■ Jamaica 1


Australasia/Pacific (4) ■ Cook Islands 1 ■ Kiribati 1 ■ Papua New Guinea 1 ■ Samoa 1


Asia (2) ■ Laos 1 ■ Mongolia 1


South/Latin America (1) ■ Costa Rica 1


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