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Electric vehicles


“In the longer term, weight reductions in battery packs and vehicles themselves will result in small improvements in range, as well as better performance due to improved battery chemistry”


is on cost reduction. In the longer term, weight reductions in battery packs and vehicles themselves will result in small improvements in range, as well as better performance due to improved battery chemistry. REEVs typically have a smaller battery on board the vehi-


cle but also have a generator (small ICE, usually petrol) that is able to generate electricity to power the electric motor or to charge the battery. This improves the total range up to approximately 360 miles but reduces the electric-only range down to around 40. PHEVs have an even smaller battery that is used as a sec-


A typical PHEV Li-ion battery


ondary traction system to the primary ICE powertrain. This set-up is similar to a hybrid vehicle but with a slightly larger battery and the ability to charge the battery from an external source. These vehicles typically have a total range of around 530 miles with the electric-only part of this being up to 10 miles.


COMPLEX ISSUES EVs and REEVs typically have the most sophisticated telematics and communication systems in order to com- pensate for their reduced range, by allowing users to eas- ily and efficiently find appropriate charging infrastructure. Furthermore, this rather unique coupling between the EV and the electricity generation/distribution systems, through the charging point, means that perhaps for the first time in history, there are additional stakeholders, such as electricity companies and distribution network operators, who are now interested in having an in-depth understanding of where EVs are and when, how, and for how long they are likely to charge. What adds an additional layer of complexity and require-


ment for connectivity and communication between the EV and charging infrastructure, is the multitude of charging infrastructure types that currently exist, many of which are not interoperable. While for REEVs and PHEVs charging infrastructure is optional, it is the only means of refuelling a BEV. There are different types of charging infrastructure avail-


able and not all of it is compatible with all EVs; the issues of standardisation and interoperability are vast and complex. Typically, standardisation of the coupler is governed by the IEC 62196-2 and -3 in Europe while the purpose of the Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) is to ensure interoperability


Europe/Rest of the World Vol 8 No 2 thinkinghighways.com 49


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