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and: 11,729,100 / 50,941,700 = 23.0% (Post-Consumer Scrap / Total Tons Liquid Steel)


Finally, the post-industrial recycled content is (1,391,000 + 2,305,000) / 50,941,700 and: 3,696,000/ 50,941,700 = 7.3%


(Post-Industrial Scrap / Total Tons Liquid Steel) Electric Arc Furnace


EAF facilities consumed a total of 44,661,700 tons of ferrous scrap in the production of 46,310,300 tons of liquid steel during 2003. Based on U.S. Geological Survey adjusted statistics, 12,124,000 of these ferrous scrap tons had been generated as unsalable steel product within the confines of these steelmaking sites. Again, in the steel industry, these tons are classified as "home scrap," but are a mix of pre-consumer scrap and post-industrial scrap. Estimates by the Steel Recycling Institute identify about 80% of this home scrap as post-industrial scrap, equating to 9,699,200 tons (12,124,000 x 80%). Additionally, these operations reported that they consumed 28,700 tons of obsolete scrap (buildings and ware- houses dismantled on-site at the mill) during this time frame. This volume is classified as post-con- sumer scrap.


As a result , based on the total scrap consumed, outside purchases of scrap equate to 32,509,000 tons [44,661,700 - (12,124,000 + 28,700)]. According to the Fordham University study, the post-consumer fraction of the purchased ferrous scrap would be 83.4 percent, while 16.6 percent of these purchases would be pre-consumer.


This equates to 5,396,500 tons of pre-consumer


scrap (32,509,000 x 16.6%).This "prompt scrap" is mainly scrap generated by manufacturing process- es for products made with steel. It is also consid- ered post-industrial scrap.


Therefore, the total recycled content to pro- duce the 46,310,300 tons of liquid steel in the EAF is:


44,661,700 / 46,310,300= 96.4% (Total Tons Ferrous Scrap / Total Tons Liquid Steel)


Also, the post-consumer recycled content is (32,509,000 - 5,396,500) + 28,700 = 27,141,200 and:


27,141,200 / 46,310,300 = 58.6% (Post-Consumer Scrap / Total Tons Liquid Steel) 3 Contact Us


Steel Recycling Institute 680 Andersen Dr. • Pittsburgh, PA 15220-2700 412.922.2772 • sri@recycle-steel.org www.recycle-steel.org


American Institute of Steel


Construction, Inc. One East Wacker Dr. • Chicago, IL 60601 866.ASK.AISC • solutions@aisc.org www.aisc.org


plate


steel deck piling


Finally, the post-industrial recycled content is (9,699,200 + 5,396,500) / 46,310,300 and: 15,095,700 / 46,310,300 = 32.6%


(Post-Industrial Scrap / Total Tons Liquid Steel) The above discussion and calculations demon-


strate conclusively the inherent recycled content of today's steel in North America. To buy steel is to "Buy Recycled."


Understanding the recycled content of BOF and EAF steels, one should not attempt to select one steel producer over another on the basis of a sim- plistic comparison of relative scrap usage or recy- cled content. Rather than providing an enhanced environmental benefit, such a selection could prove more costly in terms of total life cycle assessment energy consumption, transportation impact, or other variables.


Steel does not rely on “recycled content” pur- chasing to incorporate or drive scrap use. It already happens because of the economics. Recycled content for steel is a function of the steel- making process itself. After its useful product life, regardless of its BOF or EAF origin, steel is recy- cled back into another steel product. Thus steel with almost 100 percent recycled content cannot be described as environmentally superior to steel with 30 percent recycled content. This is not con- tradictory because they are both complementary parts of the total interlocking infrastructure of steel- making, product manufacture, scrap generation and recycling. The recycled content of EAF relies on the embodied energy savings of the steel creat- ed in the BOF.


Steel is truly the most recycled material. angles


beams and columns


Typical EAF Products


channels


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