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ensures safety, saves time, reduces costs, limits the quantity of de-icing fluid used and protects the environment. To de-ice aircraft, EFM sprays glycol-based de-icing agents onto the aircraft using special de-icing vehicles. The thin Type I de-icing fluid is combined with water in a 55:45 mixture. It is heated and applied to the aircraft at a temperature of 85 °C. The thickener in Type IV de-icing agent gives it a higher viscosity. It is sprayed onto the aircraft cold, and is not mixed. The two de-icing agents are dyed different colors to help distinguish them more easily. Type I is orange, and Type IV is green. When an aircraft is sprayed with a de-icing agent, it is protected against the formation of new ice for a

Airport’s de-icing operations. As much of the sprayed de- icing fluid as possible is collected at the remote areas. It is treated at the airport’s recycling facility to produce new recycling fluid. When it went into operation in 1993, the recycling facility for aircraft de-icing fluids at Munich Airport was the first such facility in the world on a comparable scale. The sprayed de- icing agent that drips onto the de-icing pads during aircraft de-icing operations is channeled – along with melted ice and snow – into large subterranean tanks. This mixture is then transported to the recycling facility in tank trucks where it is cleaned in a series of mechanical and chemical refinement operations and then distilled to recover the basic glycol-based de-icing agent. Additives are then introduced to produce Type I de-icing agent. After laboratory analysis and clearance by the manufacturer, the de-icing agent can be used again. EFM covers up to 70 percent of its annual requirements for Type I de-icing agent through recycling. Apart from producing new de-icing agent, recycling has a practical side effect: The recycling process generates heat as a byproduct. This “waste heat” is used to keep Munich Airport warm. In summary, we can state that Munich Airport is well

certain time period, referred to as the hold-over period. Tables based on laboratory tests define hold-over periods for the various de-icing agents under different weather conditions. The thin Type I de-icing agent has a very short hold- over period, and is used at sub-zero temperatures both for de-icing and for protection against the formation of new ice. Because only one application of Type I agent is necessary, we speak of a one-step procedure. However, if there is any form of freezing precipitation (fog, mist, snowfall), the two-step procedure is required. First the aircraft is de-iced with Type I de-icing agent to remove all frost, ice, snow or slush. Next, Type IV is sprayed on the cleaned surfaces to protect the aircraft against the formation of new ice before take-off. Type IV agent forms a heavy film on horizontal surfaces, and consequently has a longer hold- over period than Type I. Environmental protection is a top priority for Munich

22 / AF /January 2014

prepared for winter operations thanks to its technical and personnel resources. At the same time, however, there is no denying that the capacity crunch on the ground, that ultimately can be overcome only by building a third runway, will inevitably continue to cause even more bottlenecks during the winter season. The general problem of capacity has long been high on the agenda at the European level: Eurocontrol, as the international coordination office of the national air traffic control authorities, is working to promote the Single European Sky concept, i.e. a seamless European air traffic control system, has released a study warning of serious capacity bottlenecks at European airports in view of the expected growth in air traffic. It specifically mentions Germany, stating that it faces the threat of massive traffic handling problems if capacity does not keep pace with demand. In Munich, too, the issue of capacity will decide in the long term whether we can keep adding new chapters to our airport’s success story in the future. We want to keep expanding Bavaria’s excellent connections to the global air transportation network in the interests of the local population and Bavarian businesses. If we succeed, we will also be ensuring that our airport can continue to play the role of an engine for economic growth and employment beyond the present into the years and decades ahead – naturally both in the summer and the winter.


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