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results are based on the non-hygroscopic and non-reactive (non- pro-oxidative) characteristics of these trace element sources. In one example copper from copper sulphate at a high dosage level showed a negative impact on vitamin E stability in feed. In contrast, hydroxy copper was not negatively affecting the stability of vitamin E and showed comparable results with lower levels of copper sulphate in the diet (Lu et al., 2010; graph 1). Recently a trial was conducted to test the direct negative impact

of copper from various copper sources and different dosages on the oxidative stability of soy bean oil under Rancimat test conditions. In this study a strong negative effect of the copper dosage was observed. Beside this copper sulphate reduced the oxidative stability relatively by 9 and 46 %, in contrast to hydroxy copper only by 5 and 36 % resp. (Kampf 2012; graph 2).

7 6 5 4,3 4 3 no Copper 10 ppm Copper sulfate 100 ppm Copper sulfate 10 ppm IntelliBond C 100 ppm IntelliBond C

Graph 2: Impact of increasing dosages of various copper sources on the oxidative stability of soy bean oil (Kampf 2012)

An example of an antagonistic reaction between a feed

component and trace mineral resulting in insoluble complexes with low availability for the animal is shown in graph 3. The graph shows that increasing levels of copper-sulphate reduce the availability of phytate for hydrolysis by phytase. Phytate (present in cereals such as wheat, corn and rice) is a well-known absorption inhibiting factor, especially for zinc and copper. Moreover, formation of these complexes reduce the capacity of phytase to hydrolyse phytate and thereby reducing the

100 120

20 40 60 80

0 Cu-Lysine Cu-Sulphate IntelliBond C (a-d)Means (n = 3) within each Cu source with no common superscript differ significantly (P ≤ 0.05)

Graph 3: Impact of copper source and level on availability trace mineral and antagonistic feed component (Pang and Applegate 2006)

PAGE 22 PET FOOD SUPPLEMENT ISSUE 15 3,6 6,7 6,4 6,1

phosphor availability for the animal. Although phosphor availability from phytate is more relevant for livestock, the research shows how antagonistic reactions reduce the availability of trace minerals as well the availability of other feed components. Copper sulphate is highly soluble and dissociate easily to ionic

forms in aqueous environment. Ionic form of copper is highly reactive and forms the insoluble complexes with phytate. In contrast, both copper lysine complex and hydroxy copper did not influence the phosphorus hydrolysis (Pang and Applegate 2006).

Positive effect on animal health Stable forms of trace minerals are only useful in animal nutrition when they have a good bioavailability for the animal. Influence of trace mineral sources on dog health is demonstrated in several trials. Research of Lowe et al. (1994) showed reduced negative effects of calcium on zinc absorption by the use of organic zinc sources in canine diets. Several studies indicate beneficial effects of organic trace element sources on hair structure and reproduction of dogs in comparison to inorganic mineral forms (Kuhlman et al., 1998; Lowe et al., 1994; Lowe et al., 1998). Much more trial work has been carried out in monogastrics and in

ruminants where stable trace element sources e.g. chelates or hydroxy trace minerals confirmed better effects when compared to sulphates with regards to an improved bioavailability, intestinal efficiency and gut health (Allee et al., 2011; Fry et al., 2012; Kidd et al., 1996; Luo et al., 2005; Miles et al., 1998; Nollet et al., 2008; art et al., 2004; Wedekind et al., 1992). Although hydroxy trace elements are new and only just approved as feed additives in the EU, a large dossier of scientific research is available which compares hydroxy trace elements with chelates and inorganic trace elements in several animal species. (Banks et al., 2004; Cheng et al., 2008, 2010, 2011; Klasing and Naziripour 2010;Shao et al., 2010; Yasui et al., 2012)

a a a a a b c d

0 ppm 62.5 ppm 125 ppm 250 ppm

a a a a

Summary The supplementation of trace elements plays an essential role in maintaining optimal animal health. When considering the supply of trace elements it is not primarily the absolute amount fed but the usable amount of trace elements for the animal which is crucial. This requires accurate knowledge of the composition of the feed and if possible, the diminishing availability of trace elements and interactions with other feed ingredients. The trace element supply can be improved by the use of high-quality trace mineral sources such as organic chelates, however, the assessment of the used quality is essential. Another new form of high-quality trace elements are hydroxy trace elements, which recently received EU approval and which are characterised by excellent stability and processing properties together with a high physiological significance. The positive effects of chelates and hydroxy trace elements in food (better stability of sensitive feed components and ingredients) as well as in animals (higher bioavailability) are already confirmed in numerous publications. Literature is available upon request from the author.



P hydrolysis by

phytate Relative

Oxidative stabilityof soy oil (hours)

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