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Needle-free systems

References 1. National Audit Office (NAO). A Safer Place to Work: Improving the Management of Health and Safety Risks to staff in NHS.2003. Trusts. (Last accessed: August 30th 2012).

2. Health Protection Agency (HPA), Health Protection Services; Public HealthWales; Public Health Agency Northern Ireland; Health Protection Scotland. Eye of the Needle. United Kingdom Surveillance of Significant Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Viruses in HealthcareWorkers. London; Health Protection Agency. December 2012.

3. Hung JC, Krause SJ, Schmit CL. Sensible Approaches to Avoid Needle Stick Accidents in Nuclear Medicine J Nucl Med Technol 1999;27:290–3.

4. Wittmann A. In European Biosafety Network: Toolkit for implementation of the European directive on prevention of sharps injuries. (Council Directive 2010/32/EC) in Member States. 2011. Available at; http://www. 2011.pdf (Last accessed: August 30th 2012).

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6. Royal College of Nursing. Wipe It Out: One Chance to get it Right. 2012. RCN, London. http://www.rcn. file/0008/427832/004166.pdf (Last accessed: August 30th 2012).

7. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Infection: prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections in primary and community care. Clinical Guideline 139. 2012. Available at: live/13684/58656/58656.pdf (Last accessed: August 30th 2012).

8. Department of Health (DH). Immunisation Against Infectious Disease. 2006 The Stationery Office, London.

9. Haiduven DJ, Simpkins SM, Phillips ES, Stevens DA. A survey of percutaneous/mucocutaneous injury reporting in a public teaching hospital. J Hosp Infec 1999;41(2):151–4.

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14. Adams D, Elliott TS. A comparative user evaluation

of three needle-protective devices. Br J Nurs 2003;12(8);470–4.

15. Health and Safety Executive (HSE). An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Safer Sharps Devices: Systematic Review. 2012. rr914.pdf (Last accessed: August 30th 2012).

16. Roff M, Health and Safety Laboratory. Splatter hazard from syringe needle protectors an unintended consequence. Presented at the British Occupational Hygiene Society. April 2011. Available at; Events/Past_Events/4b%20-%20M%20Roff.pdf . (Last accessed: August 30th 2012).

17. Glenngård AH, Persson U. Costs associated with sharps injuries in the Swedish health care setting and potential cost savings from needle-stick prevention devices with needle and syringe. Scand J Infect Dis 2009;41(4):296–302.

18. Skinner v Scottish Ambulance Service 2004SC 790. Scottish Court Ruling; 8 July 2004. http://www. Last accessed: 17th September 2012.

19. Health and Safety Executive. 2010. http://www. asp?SF=CN&SV=4206786. Last accessed: 17th September 2012.

20. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Council Directive 2010/32/EU: implementing the framework agreement on prevention from sharps injuries in the hospital and healthcare sector concluded by HOSPEEM and EPSU. Official Journal of the European Union. 2010 June 01.


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