This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
London church revealed that today’s women lose far more calcium than our ancestors (Lees et al., 1993). This may be attributed to a lower degree of physical activity. This research supports an increasing amount of evidence that physical activity is a key factor in reducing osteoporosis risk. To promote bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis it is

important to avoid acid-producing animal products, eat plenty of fruit and vegetables, get enough vitamin D, reduce caffeine and alcohol intake and not smoke. Many studies suggest exercise is the most important determining factor. The best type of activity for bone health is weight bearing exercise; this includes walking, stair climbing and dancing.

Summary • Children and young adults do not need dairy foods for good bone health; they do need exercise and a healthy plant-based diet to ensure strong bones.

• Diets loaded with dairy products are associated with an increased risk of many diseases including osteoporosis, cancer, heart disease, obesity and diabetes.


Abelow, B.J., Holford, T.R., Insogna, K.L., 1992. Cross-cultural association between dietary animal protein and hip fracture: a hypothesis. Calcified Tissue International. 50 (1) 14-18

Barger-Lux, M.J., Heaney, R.P., 1995. Caffeine and the calcium economy revisited. Osteoporosis International. 5: 97-102.

Becker, F., Wasmuth, H.E., Hahnen, J., et al., 1995. Prediction of common epitopes between cow’s milk proteins and β cell antigens. Autoimmunity. 21: A342 (abstract)

Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A., Dawson-Hughes, B., Baron, J.A., Burckhardt, P.,Li, R., Spiegelman D, et al., 2007. Calcium intake and hip fracture risk in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 86 (6): 1780-1790

Breslau, N.A., Brinkley, L., Hill, K.D., Pak, C.Y., 1988. Relationship of animal protein-rich diet to kidney stone formation and calcium metabolism. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 66 (1) 140-146

Burns, L., Ashwell, M., Berry, J., et al., 2003. UK Food Standards Agency Optimal Nutrition Status Workshop: environmental factors that affect bone health throughout life. British Journal of Nutrition. 89: 835–840

Campbell, T. C., Campbell T. M. II., 2004. The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss and Long-Term Health. Dallas, Texas, USA. BenBella Books.

Campbell, W.W., Tang, M., 2010. Protein intake, weight loss, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences Medical Sciences. 65 (10): 1115-1122

Cavallo, M.G., Fava, D., Monetini, L., Barone, F., Pozzilli, P., 1996. Cell-mediated immune response to beta casein in recent-onset insulin-dependent diabetes: implications for disease pathogenesis. The Lancet. 348 (9032) 926-928

Feskanich, D. Willett, W.C. Stampfer, M.J., Colditz G.A., 1997. Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: a 12-year prospective study. The American Journal of Public Health. 87 (6) 992-7.

Frassetto, L.A., Todd, K.M., Morris, R.C. Jr, Sebastian, A., 2000. Worldwide incidence of hip fracture in elderly women: relation to consumption of animal and vegetable foods. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. 55 (10) M585-592

FSA, 2002. McCance & Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 6th summary edition. Cambridge, England, Royal Society of Chemistry.

Gerstein, H.C., 1994. Cow’s milk exposure and type I diabetes mellitus. A critical overview of the clinical literature. Diabetes Care. 17 (1) 13-9

Hammond-McKibben, D., Dosch, H.-M., 1997. Cow’s milk, bovine serum albumin, and IDDM: can we settle the controversies? Diabetes Care. 20: 897 – 901

Harvard School of Public Health, 2012. The Nutrition Source. Calcium and Milk: What’s Best

for Your Bones and Health? Accessed online: should-youeat/calcium-full-story/index.html#intro

Heaney,, R.P., Weaver, C.M., 1990. Calcium absorption from kale. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 51 (4) 656-657.

Heaney, R.P., Weaver, C.M., Recker R.R., 1988. Calcium absorbability from spinach. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 47 (4) 707-709

Hurrell, R.F., 2003. Influence of vegetable protein sources on trace element and mineral bioavailability. The Journal of Nutrition. 133 (9) 2973S-7S

Karjalainen, J., Martin, J.M., Knip, M. et al., 1992. A bovine albumin peptide as a possible trigger of insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine. 327 (5) 302-307

Lanou A.J., Berkow S.E., and Barnard N.D. 2005. Calcium, Dairy Products, and Bone Health in Children and Young Adults: A Re-evaluation of the Evidence. Pediatrics. 115 (3) 736-743

Lanou, A.J., 2009. Should dairy be recommended as part of a healthy vegetarian diet? Counterpoint. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (5): 1638S-1642S

Lees, B., Molleson, T., Arnett, T.R., Stevenson, J.C., 1993. Differences in proximal femur bone density over two centuries. The Lancet. 13, 341 (8846) 673-5.

Lloyd, T., Petit, M.A., Lin, H.M., Beck, T.J., 2004. Lifestyle factors and the development of bone mass and bone strength in young women. The Journal of Pediatrics. 144 (6) 776-782

Marsh, A.G., Sanchez, T.V., Michelsen, O., Chaffee, F.L., Fagal, S.M., 1988. Vegetarian lifestyle and bone mineral density. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 48 (3 Supplement) 837-841

Martin, J.M., Trink, B., Daneman, D., Dosch, H.- M., Robinson, B., 1991. Milk proteins in the etiology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Annals of Medicine. 23 (4) 447 – 452

Mazess, R.B., Mather, W.E., 1974. Bone mineral content of North Alaskan Eskimos. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 27 (9) 916-25.

Mazess, R.B., Mather, W.E., 1975. Bone mineral content in Canadian Eskimos. Human Biology. 47 (1) 44-63

Muntoni, S., Cocco, P., Aru, G. and Cucca, F., 2000. Nutritional factors and worldwide incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 71 (6) 1525-9

National Diet and Nutrition Survey- Adults aged 19- 64 years. Food Standards Agency. Volume 5, 2004.

National Osteoporosis Society (NOS) Online, 2012: [Accessed 22 November 2012]. National Osteoporosis Society, Camerton, Bath, BA2 0PJ.

Nieves, J.W., 2005. Osteoporosis: the role of micronutrients. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 81 (5) 1232S-1239S

NIH Consensus Development Conference Statement, 1994. Optimal Calcium Intake. June 6-8; 12 (4) 1-31

Paronen J., Knip M., Savilahti E., Virtanen S.M., et al., 2000. Effect of cow’s milk exposure and

maternal type 1 diabetes on cellular and humoral immunization to dietary insulin in infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Finnish Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk Study Group. Diabetes. 49 (10) 1657-65

Paronen, J., Knip, M., Savilahti, E., Virtanen, S.M., Ilonen, J., Akerblom, H.K., Vaarala, O., 2000. Effect of cow’s milk exposure and maternal type 1 diabetes on cellular and humoral immunization to dietary insulin in infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Finnish Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk Study Group. Diabetes. 49 (10) 1657-65.

Perez-Bravo, F., Carrasco, E., Gutierrez-Lopez, M.D., et al., 1996. Genetic predisposition and environmental factors leading to the development of insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus in Chilean children. Journal of Molecular Medicine. 74 (2) 105-9

Pratt, W.B., Holloway, J.M., 2001. Incidence of hip fracture in Alaska Inuit people: 1979-89 and 1996- 99. Alaska Medicine. 43 (1) 2-5.

Robbins J. 2001. The Food Revolution, how your diet can help save your life and the world. Berkeley, California, USA. Conari Press.

Sahni, S., Hannan, M.T., Blumberg, J., Cupples, L.A., Kiel, D.P., Tucker, K.L., 2009. Protective effect of total carotenoid and lycopene intake on the risk of hip fracture: a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. Journal of Bone Mineral Research. 24(6): 1086-1094

Sellmeyer, D.E., Stone, K.L, Sebastian, A., Cummings, S.R., 2001. A high ratio of dietary animal to vegetable protein increases the rate of bone loss and the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 73 (1) 118-122

Shaw N.J., Pal, B.R., 2002. Vitamin D deficiency in UK Asian families: activating a new concern. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 86: 147-149

Vaarala, O., Knip, M., Paronen, J., et al., 1999. Cow’s milk formula feeding induces primary immunization to insulin in infants at genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 48 (7) 1389-94

Walker, A.R.P., Richardson, B., Walker, F., 1972. The influence of numerous pregnancies and lactations on bone dimensions in South African Bantu and Caucasian mothers. Clinical Science. 42: 189-196.

Warensjö, E., Byberg, L., Melhus, H., Gedeborg, R., Mallmin, H., Wolk, A., Michaëlsson, K., 2011. Dietary calcium intake and risk of fracture and osteoporosis: prospective longitudinal cohort study. BMJ. 342: d1473

Westman, E.C., Yancy, W.S., Edman, J.S., Tomlin, K.F., Perkins, C.E., 2002. Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program. American Journal of Medicine. 113 (1): 30-36

Wickham, C.A., Walsh, K., Cooper, C., Barker, D.J., Margetts, B.M., Morris J., Bruce, S.A., 1989. Dietary calcium, physical activity, and risk of hip fracture: a prospective study. British Medical Journal. 299 (6704) 889-892

Viva! Health – Feeding you the Facts

This is one in a series of Viva! Health factsheets. For details contact: Viva! Health, 8 York Court, Wilder Street, Bristol BS2 8QH. Tel: 0117 944 1000. Email: Web:

• From a health perspective, dairy foods should be avoided in the diet. • Most people in the world naturally cannot digest the sugar in milk - lactose - as after weaning, they are lactose intolerant. Therefore, the vast majority of people obtain calcium from plant-based sources.

• Many children are affected by cows’ milk allergies. • Cows’ and goats’ milk, meat, fish and eggs contain proteins which acidify our blood. Therefore, calcium is leached from our bones to neutralise the acid.

• Looking solely at calcium intake and not at calcium losses tells only half the story; while a vegan’s intake might be less than a meat eater’s, their losses are likely to be much lower. A plant- based diet free of animal products - a vegan diet - does not produce these losses.

• There are no scientific reports of calcium deficiency in adult vegans. • Vitamins A, B group, C, D, K, magnesium and potassium are all required for good bone health.

• Plant-based sources of calcium are many and varied and offer many other health benefits as well as providing a natural and safe source of calcium.

Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4
Produced with Yudu -