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phone instead of relying on the supervisor. T is is a moment akin to let ing go of the saddle as your child learns to ride a bike. T e ability to encourage the trainee team to go ahead, or to discourage them if you think they aren’t ready, will depend on how confi dent you are they will stay upright, or fall over. Staying upright or falling over may aff ect the therapy, depending on how confi dent you are in the skill of the trainee therapist.

Returning to my question How does all this help me to understand what leads me to

focus on particular events and foreground any particular context, and therefore potential meaning at any one time? I hope that, by elaborating on examples linked to some of the diff erent petals, I have shown how articulating the relational contexts helps in understanding the processes involved in live-training supervision. Drawing the daisies, and naming some of the contexts at play

has, in itself, helped me identify questions for myself which might expand on the fundamental question posed by Schwartz et al. (1988): “Is the outcome of the session at stake?” T ose are: • What am I noticing? • Why am I noticing this: is it to do with the clients, the trainee, the team, or myself?

• Is there a pat ern? • In what way do I want to infl uence what is happening? • Do I want to infl uence the therapy or do I want to highlight a learning theme? Are they mutually exclusive?

• What are the diff erent ways of achieving what I hope to achieve? (E.g. directly or indirectly through the team. Now or later?) I am struck by what an impossible task it might be to “refl ect-

in-action” (Schön, 1987) on all these questions before deciding on a course of action and acting; by which time the moment is likely to have long gone! Van Manen (1995) questions how refl ection-in- action can happen when a constantly changing situation demands

that responses are made constantly and immediately, a description that fi ts the practice of live supervision. Van Manen is interested in what he terms ‘pedagogical tact’, a kind of practical knowing that is embodied in the teacher and the teacher’s environment. T is comes, I believe, with refl ection, practice and experience and being open to learn. T e CMM daisy model has helped me begin to articulate more clearly for myself the many and sometimes competing conversational contexts that are operating within the practice of live-training supervision. In the process of refl ecting on my practice, and the various contextual levels at play, I have become aware of responding more consciously to the mud bubbles that draw my at ention, and also of actively looking out for them.

Note 1. My thanks to my colleague, Kieran Vivian-Byrne

References Pearce, W.B. (2004) The coordinated management of meaning (CMM). In W.B. Gudykunst (Ed) Theorizing About Intercultural Communication. California: Sage. Pearce Associates (1999, revised 2004) Using CMM. Retrieved from (accessed on 13.06.2011) Philp, K., Gut, G. & Lowe, R. (2007) Social constructionist supervision or supervision as social construction? Some dilemmas. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 26: 51-62. Schön, D.A. (1987) Educating the Refl ective Practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Schwartz, R., Liddle, H. & Breunlin, D. (1988) Muddles in live supervision. In H. Liddle, D. Breunlin & R. Schwartz (Eds) Handbook of Family Therapy Training and Supervision. New York: Guilford Press. Van Manen, M. (1995) On the epistemology of refl ective practice. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 1: 33-50.

Mary Morris is a systemic psychotherapist working at The Family institute, Wales in the University of Glamorgan, where she is also a senior lecturer. She would like to thank colleagues, students and clients for teaching her about live supervision. Contact welcomed:

Context February 2012


Mud pools and daisies: Using the CMM Daisy to aid decision making in live-training supervision

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