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ADHD and TM Practice


areas with higher coherence in the TM group at 3-month posttest compared to pretest values (middle row); and there were many frontal and parietal areas with higher coherence in the delayed-start group at the 6-month posttest compared to the 3-month posttest values (bottom row).


Changes in Performance on the D-KEFS and the Tower of London


Baseline Differences There were no significant group differences at baseline for


Figure 1. Theta/beta power ratios during computer tasks in the TM group decreased compared to the delayed-start group after 3 months of TM practice and continued to decrease at the 6-month posttest in these subjects. In the delayed-start group theta/beta power ratios increased slightly from baseline to the 3-month posttest and then decreased sharply after they learned TM (3- to 6-month posttest).


line with square markers), while the TM subjects (solid line diamond markers) decreased*moved closer to normal values. At the 6-month posttest after both groups were practicing the TM technique, theta/beta ratios decreased in both groups.


Coherence Patterns: Quantitative Results A repeated measures (pretest/3-month posttest) MANOVA


of coherence during tasks with 12 variates*coherence in theta, alpha, beta, and gamma frequency bands averaged into frontal, parietal, and anterior/parietal brain areas*yielded significant frequencygroup interactions (Wilks’ Lambda F(3, 14)4.70, p.018 h2.50). Thus, analyses were con- ducted within each frequency. Significant grouppre/postt- est interactions were seen in the theta band (Wilks’ Lambda (F(1, 16)5.60, p.031, h2.26), a trend for significant increases in the alpha band (F(1, 16)3.3, p.09, h2.17), and in the beta band (F(1, 16)5.50, p.08, h2.18) across all brain areas in the TM group.


Coherence Patterns: Visual Results As this is a pilot test of effects of TM practice on ADHD


brain patterns, we explored differences in coherence across the three periods. Coherence-difference maps were created by subtracting coherence calculated at pretest from coherence at the 3-month posttest within each group. Also, in the delayed start group, we subtracted coherence from the two post- tests*after they had been meditating for 3 months. These coherence-difference maps in theta (5.07.5 Hz), alpha (8.0 12 Hz), beta1 (1320 Hz), and gamma bands (20.550 Hz) are displayed in Figure 2. A .2 cutoff was used to display coherence differences. Coherence averaged around .6. Thus, a difference of .1.2 in coherence between groups represents a 30% difference in coherence.


Figure 2 presents the coherence-difference maps. As seen


here, there were few sensors with higher coherence in the delayed-start group at the 3-month posttest compared to their pretest values (top row); there were many frontal and parietal


the four measures from the D-KEFS and six measures from the Tower of London (all Wilk’s Lambda F(12, 5)B1.0).


Primary Analyses The omnibus repeated-measures MANOVA with 10


variates*four measures from the D-KEFS and six from the Tower of London*yielded significant measuregroup inter- actions, Wilk’s Lambda F(10, 7)3.7, p.041, h2.84. Thus, individual repeated-measure MANOVAs were con- ducted for each psychological measures.


Tower of London


The repeated measures MANOVA with the six Tower of London measures as variates yielded significant pre/posttest differences for all variables (Wilk’s Lambda F(1, 16)17.7, p.001, h2.52), but no significant grouppre/posttest interactions (F(1, 16)B1.0). There appears to have been significant learning effects in subjects in both groups on this test.


D-KEFS Verbal Fluency


The repeated measures MANOVA with the four DKEF measures as variates yielded significant measureprepost interactions (Wilks’ Lambda F(3, 14)4.2, p.025, h2 .48). Therefore, separate ANCOVAs of difference scores covarying for pretest values were conducted for each subscale. There were significant increases from pretest to 3-month posttest in Letter Fluency for the TM group (F(1, 15)7.7, p .017, h2.34), and no significant group differences on other components of the Verbal Fluency test. Table 2 presents the mean scores on the D-KEFS Verbal Fluency test for pretest, 3- month, and 6-month posttest for the two groups.


Parent’s Self-Report Questionnaire At the end of the research, the parents completed an 11-


point Likert scale questionnaire (5 Strong Negative Changes to 5 Strong Positive Changes) to assess their perceptions of changes in five ADHD-related symptoms in the their children from the beginning to the end of the study. On this instrument, there were positive and statistically significant improvements in the five areas measured: (a) ability to focus on schoolwork, (b) organizational abilities, (c) ability to work independently, (d) happiness, and (e) quality of sleep. Table 3


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