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Focus on Hygiene, Safety & the Environment

Alltech House Ryhall Road Stamford Lincolnshire PE9 1TZ Tel: +44 (0) 1780 764512 Fax: +44 (0) 1780 764506 Web:

De-Odorasing ammonia reduces environmental emissions Recent climate change talks identified that agricultural efficiency is the way forward in reducing emissions. Agriculture and food production accounts for 10-12% of global emissions. About a third (or 7% UK Green house gas emissions) comes from agriculture. Pork production causes environmental impacts including climate change, air pollution, water

pollution and loss of biodiversity. These impacts tend to be lower for pork products than for beef and lamb, but higher than for poultry. Reducing the environmental impact of ammonia is a major driver of policy to curb emissions. The

environment in the animal housing affects both the performance of the stock and also the health of the stockperson who has to attend the animals. Controlled environment houses (particularly for pigs) tend to be governed by temperature. Whilst maintaining the optimum internal temperature for the growth of pigs during the cold winter months reduced airflow is inevitable, which in turn increases ammonia levels and the incidence of respiratory disease, causing lower food intakes, slower growth rates and higher morbidity and mortality. Across a wide range of animal types and nutritional regimes approximately 70-80% of the nitrogen

intake is eventually excreted. Part of this nitrogen has already been utilised by the animal and appears in the urine, the remainder is the unavailable component in the feed and is excreted in the faeces. This excreted nitrogen finishes up in the slurry or is mixed up with the bedding. Bacteria and enzymes in the bedding and slurry then convert the nitrogen to ammonia. Slurry is one source of aerial pollutant such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide but other sources of ammonia also contribute a large proportion of the atmospheric ammonia. Manure and urine which accumulate above the slats contribute to the concentration of ammonia recorded in slatted pig housing. One nutritional strategy is the addition of De-Odorase to feed. De-Odorase is extracted from

the Yucca Schidigera plant and is added to the diet at 120 grams per tonne and has been shown to substantially reduce the level of ammonia and odour release from the slurry storage facilities.

De-Odorase and pig performance: Pigs: 25-90 kg body weight; typical European diets Control 1.57 0.71 2.34 10.6 96.3

Feed intake (Kg/d) Growth rate (Kg/d) Feed:Gain (Kg/Kg)

Backfat thickness (mm) Days to Slaughter

Compared with control

(Duffy and Brooks, 1998) De-Odorase will help reduce the level of ammonia and/or

odour emitted from pig units, therefore reducing environmental emissions. De-Odorase has also been shown to give improvements in physical animal performance.

ANITOX Tel: +44 (0)1604 811228 E-mail:


Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria, the main pathogens causing human health problems, have been found in livestock feed. In 2008 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Panel on Biological Hazards stated: ‘feed is a major vector for the transmission of Salmonella to animals consuming feed and food products derived from the animals’. Though widely used by feed manufacturers, heat treatment is expensive, has a high ‘carbon footprint’ and may not kill all pathogens. Contamination will occur unless additional measures are implemented. The Anitox Termin-8® Pathogen Control Program for finished feed and raw materials guarantees


3.2 % higher feed intake 7 % better growth rate 4.7% better feed utilisation 7 Days earlier to slaughter

De-oderase 120 (ppm) 1.62 0.76 2.23 9.3

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