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Cargo Handling

John Deere Power Systems

(JDPS) is also avoiding SCR for Stage 3b/T4i. Building on its Stage 3a/Tier 3 platform, the engines fea- ture high-pressure fuel injection, cooled EGR and variable turbine ge- ometry turbochargers (VGT) from BorgWarner. Like Caterpillar, JDPS is adding DPF and a DOC, along with crankcase ventilation for this step along the emissions technology path.

More for DPF-EGR

For Cummins, too, the “core tech- nology” for Stage 3b/T4i is DPF and EGR. The DPF, said the company, will reduce PM emissions by 90%, while EGR will reduce NOx by 45%. Engine enhancements will include the use of VGT, advanced electronic controls and high pressure common rail fuel systems. The engines will be equipped

with a crankcase filter to eliminate escaping blow-by gases, oil mist and droplets. This architecture will extend from

the mid-range QSB to the heavy duty QSX engines. Power outputs are in- creased compared to Stage 3a/Tier 3, and Cummins says it can improve fuel efficiency by up to 5%, depend- ing on rating and duty cycle. The PM filter technology is based

on the DPF systems for 2007 high- way engines, but Cummins is also factoring in off-highway require- ments such as high-shock loads, an- gularity, space restrictions and work- ing environment conditions. Signifi- cantly, Cummins has not yet decided on the NOx control options for 2014 when, as noted, the NOx limit comes down to just 0.40 g/kWh.

Wheel loader tests

Of more interest to NRMM opera- tors, however, Cummins says it has found a > 5% fuel efficiency im- provement from its EGR and DPF solution compared to its Stage 3a/ Tier 3 engines. In a back-to-back test carried out under site conditions across a series of duty cycles, iden- tical wheeled loaders in the 142-149 kW class were used to test the two engine types with both having the same power output, peak torque and rated speed. The improved fuel efficiency of

the Stage 3b/T4i QSB6.7 engine was achieved without compromising ma- chine performance, says Cummins. Indeed, faster engine response to load demands meant the T4i-pow- ered machine completed the fuel duel tests within shorter cycle times. “The results of the test speak for

themselves,” said Hugh Foden, Cummins’ director, off-highway business, in Columbus, Indiana. “OEMs can expect lower

operational costs and enhanced productivity from Cummins- powered Stage 3b/T4i-compliant engines. Because we design and manufacture the complete engine system from air-in to exhaust-out after-treatment we have been able to produce a cleaner and more fuel- efficient combustion process.” In the back-to-back evaluation the

same driver operated both wheeled loaders and each machine was fitted with the same bucket size and ran on equal tyre pressures to eliminate any variables that could influence the results. Fuel consumption was meas- ured using a secondary fuel tank, which was weighed after each test.

Terex and Scania

The approach that OEMs take to the new rules is interesting. One lead- ing construction and industrial equip- ment manufacturer, Terex, has an-

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nounced that it has signed a long- term agreement that means that, starting in 2011, Scania will supply engines for some of its output. Jacob Thomas, Terex’s SVP,

product development and marketing, made clear that Terex wants to en- sure that it is not tied to one Stage 3b/Tier 4i engine technology. “We can choose whatever engine technol- ogy that is optimal for our product applications. Our approach is to look at what our end users and dealers want in terms of purchase cost, op- erating costs,


maintainability and product support. “Not being an engine manufac- turer, Terex has the flexibility to

choose the best technical solution for each of its product applications and does not have to select a one-size- fits-all approach. “Scania has the technological ex-

pertise and resources to meet our re- quirements in key product applica- tions and has an outstanding reputa- tion globally.” Terex is working all this year with

its distribution network and custom- ers to prepare for the transition to the new emission standards. “In addition to meeting the new

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emission standards, Scania engines deliver fuel efficiency and low maintenance costs, resulting in low total ownership cost for the end

user,” said Robert Sobock, SVP, Scania Engines. “Scania is committed to best-in-

class service and its global support network for industrial engines will be ready to meet the high product sup- port standards of Terex equipment customers.”

Case makes its case

Meanwhile, Case Construction Equip- ment has announced that it will ad- dress Stage 3B/T4i with both EGR and SCR across its product line, which includes more than 90 equipment mod- els, ranging from 11.3 kW to 397 kW. Cutting to the chase, Case argues that the challenge in meeting Stage

3B/T4i and Stage 4/T4 final is that EGR recuces NOx, but increases PM levels, while SCR reduces PM and increases NOx. In order to meet the ultimate goal of near-zero emissions, an after-treatment exhaust filter sys- tem must be part of a CEGR solu- tion, and a diesel exhaust fluid addi- tive must be part of an SCR solution. Case sees advantages to both

technologies depending on engine size and load and also application demands, and it is taking advantage of the resources available to it as part of the Fiat Group (through CNH Glo- bal NV) as well as the strengths of its worldwide strategic partners and suppliers. 

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