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Cargo Handling

Different approaches to compliance

As from January 2011, EU Stage 3b, US-EPA Tier 4 in- terim (T4i) and Japan MLIT Step 4 emission regu- lations will apply to non- road mobile machinery (NRMM) engines across the power range 130-515 kW (174-751 hp).

The new rules specify a

further reduction of 90% particulate matter (PM) and 45% nitrogen oxides (NOx), making some form of exhaust after-treatment unavoidable. From 2012 the standards will apply to NRMM engines in the 56-129 kW range. Stage 3b/T4i require a maximum PM level of 0.02 g/kWh (0.015 g/bhp-hr) and NOx of around 2 g/kWh.

Vanishing point

On January 1, 2014 US Tier 4 final and EU Stage 4, are sched- uled to come into force, requir- ing that NRMM engines lower their emissions of NOx by a further 45%. At that time, the NOx limit will be 0.4 g/kWh (0.30 g/bhp-hr) and the “gap” between on-road and NRMM diesel engines will have reached “vanishing point.” One leading engine maker,

Volvo Penta, notes that NRMM rules are coming at short inter- vals and with limits that are as stringent as the latest on-road regulations. In addition, emis- sion regulations will be a real- ity in more places around the globe than ever before. “It is important,” say

Volvo, “to rely on a company that operates globally so that the end product can be serv- iced and supported wherever it may end up.” Up to now legislation af-

fecting on-road vehicles has been stricter than non-road regulations (stationary as well as mobile plant). Latest tech- nologies are thus normally in- troduced first on on-road ve- hicles and later transferred to the non-road sector.

For Volvo Penta, there is no

reason why its NRMM cus- tomers should settle for any- thing less than is currently being used in passenger cars and trucks. However, the range of applications is far wider in the NRMM sector, so more effort is needed to switch to new technology. “Looking ahead,” says

product manager David Hanngren, “the technology should be merged as quickly as possible. This is because on-road solutions are based on larger volumes, which means lower costs, and they offer better fuel economy and are easier to install.”

Two paths

There are two main paths for meeting the 2011 and 2014 NRMM legislation, continues Hanngren. One is EGR-DPF (exhaust gas recirculation-die- sel particulate filter) and the other is SCR (selective cata- lytic reduction). In Europe, the dominant

technology to meet Euro 4 and Euro 5 has been through an SCR system. The next legis- lation step in the US (US10) will also be met with SCR technology by most truck manufacturers. In the non-road sector

however there is a choice to be made: EGR or SCR. It is not easy to judge which is the best way forward, since all engine manufacturers pro- mote their own choice of tech- nology. Volvo has both tech- nologies available and they are being used concurrently in different parts of the world. In Europe Volvo has been

using SCR systems since the introduction of Euro 4 in 2004. More than 0.5M units are operating in Europe and this is now considered as a very mature technology. In the USA Volvo will introduce US10 engines next year. These will be equipped with

the engine. There is no need for DPF regeneration and thus no safety issues such as very hot exhausts from the tailpipe; no emptying of ashes and no requirement to halt the opera- tion to regenerate the filter with a separate burner. Moving from Stage 3a/Tier

A Scania Stage 3a/T3 9-litre industrial engine. Terex has announced that it will be sourcing some of its Stage 3b/T4i requirements from Scania

SCR systems as well as DPF and EGR. The SCR system consists

of a tank for the AdBlue (DEF) urea-water solution, a pump system, an injection nozzle and the SCR catalyst. When sprayed into the ex- haust gases, the AdBlue forms ammonia, the hydrogen of which reduces the oxygen molecules in the NOx and forms steam. All that remains is harmless nitrogen. AdBlue/ DEF is an odourless and harm- less liquid made up of 32.5% urea and distilled water.

Mature technology

As noted, for Volvo Penta, a key benefit of using SCR for Stage 3B/T4i is that the tech- nology is mature and SCR is already the “standard” configu- ration for Euro 4 and above trucks. This means high vol- ume production, which in turn leads to competitive pricing. Today’s service intervals

remain unchanged. The SCR catalyst is easily serviced and no cleaning or replacement are needed during its lifetime, which will also lead to lowest operating cost. “Several studies point in

one and the same direction, says Hanngren. “If two iden-

Available from WorldCargo News

“Container Terminal Planning - A Theoretical

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A major study by Dr Itsuro Watanabe (Container System Technology)

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12

tical engines meet the same emission standards, one with SCR and the other with EGR- DPF, the engine with SCR will in most cases have between 5- 8% lower fuel consumption.

This will lead to lower CO2 emissions.” For low load applications,

Volvo Penta has developed a heat mode management sys- tem, to achieve optimum tem- peratures for the SCR system without sacrificing fuel con- sumption. For heavy loads, the SCR system is favourable due to its low fuel consumption as a result of the absence of EGR leading to lower heat rejection (ie lower cooling demand). The engine block and com-

ponents on the engine are largely unchanged as between the Stage 2/Tier 2 engine and the Stage 3B/T4i engine. Ba- sically the changes concern SCR muffler that replaces the current silencer, and an AdBlue tank. SCR technology also ena-

bles higher output per litre/ displacement compared to EGR on a given engine, which in turn will lead to more com- pact packaging. An SCR sys- tem, continues Volvo Penta, requires virtually no mainte- nance during the lifetime of

3 to Stage 3B/T4i involves substantial changes in the in- stallation. In the SCR solution, however, there is no need to make any changes in the cool- ing system, due to the fact that there is no added heat rejec- tion to coolant compared with Stage 3a/Tier 3 engines. In 2011 Volvo Penta will

introduce a complete range of engines from 5-16 litres dis- placement. “Our technology choice to meet legislative de- mands in Europe and the US in 2011, reducing exhaust gas emissions and fuel consump- tion, for our all-speed non-road engines is SCR,” says Volvo. “To meet the next stage of

legislation in 2014 SCR will be coupled with additional ad- vanced technologies developed within the Volvo Group.”

Similar thinking

In April this year Scania En- gines launched a new pro- gramme for industrial en- gines. It now offers a full pro- gramme of 9-, 13- or 16-litre engines ranging from 202 kW to 515 kW. The new engine pro-

gramme not only has an in- creased output, they are also said to be more fuel-efficient. Field tests with customer ap- plications with the new en- gines have been running for about six months, in various applications in Europe, with excellent results, said Scania Engines’ communications manager, Ann-Helen Tolleman. Importantly, the new en-

gine range, together with Scania SCR exhaust after- treatment, complies with the Stage 3b/T4i emission regula- tions. Scania has been using both SCR and EGR in trucks and buses for several years. For all-speed industrial en-

gines, it favours the SCR method as it fits the demands from the customer in this seg- ment with rapid response time with high torque at low revs.

The company adds that the

emission legislation of 2014 will, as it looks today, most likely demand both SCR and some amount of EGR. If the engine installation is adapted for SCR, only small modifi- cations will be required for the next step.

Different thinking

A different approach is being taken by Caterpillar. Its Stage 3b/T4i and MLIT Step 4 en- gines will not use SCR. They will be equipped with PM af- ter-treatment systems, includ- ing diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) and DPFs with ad- vanced regeneration systems, designed to optimise uptime, fuel efficiency and operator convenience. The DOC reduces CO, HC

and some PM. The “down- stream” DPF traps and holds PM remaining in the exhaust stream where they are even- tually oxidised through “re- generation.” Caterpillar has been involved in the design and production of PM after- treatment technology during the past 14 years. Last October Caterpillar

announced the introduction of new C3.4B, C4.4 ACERT and C6.6 ACERT, the three latest additions to its Stage 3b/T4i engine line up, covering the 45 -130 kW (60-174 hp) output range. They bring the total Cat

Stage 3b/T4i engine count to 15. Compared to existing Stage 3a/Tier 3 engines, said Caterpillar, the new engines produce fuel consumption improvements across the en- tire horsepower band. The C3.4B, C4.4 ACERT

and C6.6 ACERT will begin production and distribution prior to 2012, the year that Stage 3b/T4i take effect for this power category of engines. By the same token, the C7.1 ACERT and C9.3 ACERT will be available prior to 2011. When completely unveiled,

the Cat Stage 3b/T4i engine line-up will include over 20 models from 9-895 kW. As with all Cat ACERT Stage 3b/ T4i-compliant engines, ACERT Technologies are the key enabler to achieve a signifi- cant 90% reduction of PM and a 45% reduction of NOx.

A Volvo Penta TAD 1650 VE industrial engine

BMI March/April 2010

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