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Figure 1. Schematics of a typical tip gen- eration – substrate collection experi- ment for electrocatalyst research. R= Reactant (initially in solution), P= Prod- uct at the tip, P’= Product after reaction of P at the substrate. P’ and R may be the same species provided adequate condi- tions at the substrate.

learn electrochemistry, but they would also have to learn some spectroscopy, photochemistry, and so on.”

The study of electrochemilumines- cence took Bard into several new re- search directions. For example, he re- calls a conversation in about 1970 with Farrington Daniels, then a chemistry professor at the University of Wiscon- sin. Daniels said, “Anybody can put electricity into something and make light come out. That’s not really a big deal. The big deal is to put light into a system and make electricity come out. Can you run your system backwards?“ At the time, Bard says, he didn’t have any idea how to run the system back- wards. “But it got me to thinking: How would you make a system go the other way? So we slowly got into the field of photoelectrochemistry, which is putting light into systems and getting electric- ity and chemicals out of them.” For 25 years, Bard and his students have been investigating photoelectrochemistry, studying both semiconductors and oth- er molecular materials. One of their big- gest contributions to this field was to demonstrate that semiconductors don’t have to be highly pure, single-crystal materials. One of Bard’s strengths, Dr. Norman Hackerman pointed out, is Bard’s ability to recognize the poten-


Figure 2. 250 × 330 µm optical micropho- tographs of holes on PTFE-covered elec- trodes. (A) Revealed spot, (B) Unsuccess- ful breaking away of the PTFE layer over a resin spot, (C) Redispensed drop of Pd solution over a revealed hole, (D) Typical appearance of a Pd spot after drying and reduction under H2 (350 °C).

tial of new instrumentation to address the problems he’s interested in. “Bard would immediately jump on new and innovative instruments and work with them quite effectively.”

Bard was always meant to be a scien- tist. “From as early a time as I can re- member, I liked science,” he says. Born in New York City in 1933, he spent many hours as a young boy in the company of his older brother or sister at New York’s American Museum of Natural History or the museum’s Hayden Planetarium. “I liked doing experiments and collecting things, like leaves and bugs. Through grade school and junior high school, I always liked science classes best.” As a student at the Bronx High School of Science in the late 1940s, Bard, though good at chemistry, was more interested in biology. He enjoyed working with his sister-in-law, a botanist at Rutgers Uni- versity, doing ecological studies. Yet he wasn’t sure he wanted a career in biol- ogy. “I mistakenly felt in 1950 that biolo- gy was too much about classification,” he recalls. “It seemed too routine. I like things that are more theoretical, more molecular. So I thought chemistry was a better place to go. Biology was changing, but I didn’t know that. I didn’t know about molecular biology. In ret- rospect, I don’t know what would have happened if I had stayed with biology.”

Bard’s parents, both European immi- grants, encouraged education and sent all of their children to college. Money was tight, and Bard attended the then- free City College of New York. It was a hard school to get into, he recalls, but the faculty was devoted to the stu- dents and was very good at teaching fundamentals. There was no graduate program at the college at that time, so science faculty did little research. As Bard was to discover when he entered graduate school at Harvard University in 1955, that focus on undergraduate teaching left him a bit behind some of his Harvard classmates in his knowl- edge of the frontiers of chemistry. But he was quick to catch up.

Bard arrived at Harvard thinking he wanted to study inorganic chemistry. He was fascinated by the then-new field of organometallic sandwich com- pounds and joined the group of as- sistant professor Geoffrey Wilkinson, who was engaged in work on these compounds that would earn him a No- bel Prize in Chemistry in 1973. Unfor- tunately for Bard, Wilkinson’s days at Harvard were numbered. The chem- istry department’s practice at the time was to not offer tenure to its own as- sistant professors, including Wilkinson, who left at the end of 1955 to accept the chair in inorganic chemistry at Im- Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28
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