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234 GLOSSARY

IDP – Internally Displaced Person IED – Improvised Explosive Device iftar – breaking of the Ramazan fast at sunset imam – Muslim religious leader insha’Allah – ‘If God wills it’, universal Muslim saying ISAF – International Security Assistance Force, led by NATO Ismaili – a branch of Shiite Islam iwan – open-ended barrel-vaulted hall used in mosque architecture

jad – road, street jamaat khana – Ismaili community hall, their closest equivalent to a mosque Jamiat-e Islami – Society of Islam Party; moderate Tajik political party and leading player in the Northern Alliance, with the late Ahmad Shah Massoud as its figurehead jang – war jihad – holy struggle or holy war Jihad, the – popular name given to the Afghan anti- Soviet war jirga – council of community elders and leaders Jumbesh-e Melli – National Islamic Movement; almost exclusively Uzbek political party, dominated by General Abdul Rashid Dostum

kafir – Islamic term for a nonbeliever Kalimeh – Muslim declaration of faith (‘There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is His prophet’; shahadah in Arabic) karakol – breed of Afghan sheep; also the pelt from newborn lambs used in Afghan hats karez – subterranean irrigation canal khan – Muslim title, typically referring to landed elite khanka – opium (Pashto); also called tareyak (Dari) khareji – foreigner khel – Pashtun clan Khoda – God (Dari) koh – mountain kolah – turban cap Koran – see Quran kot (kotal) – mountain pass kowk – partridge kept for bird fighting Kuchi – nomad, usually Pashtun Kushan – Buddhist empire that ruled Afghanistan from 1st century AD Kyrgyz – Nomadic tribe of the Wakhan Corridor

landay – Pashtun folk poetry, composed in couplets lakh – 100,000 loya jirga – grand tribal council lungi – turban

madrassa – Islamic college malang – wandering holy man, usually a Sufi

malik – Pashtun tribal chief masjid – mosque maulana – Islamic cleric mazar – tomb mehman – guest mehmankhana – guesthouse, hotel melmastia – hospitality, a key pillar of Pashtunwali Meshrano Jirga – House of the Elders; the upper house of the Afghan parliament, acting in a primarily advisory role mir – honorific title given to some Afghan leaders muezzin – one who calls Muslims to prayer, traditionally from the minaret of a mosque Mughal – Muslim India empire founded in Afghanistan in 16th century mujaheddin – Muslim fighter engaged in jihad mullah – Islamic cleric Muslim – adherent of the Islamic faith

namaz – Muslim prayer nan – bread nang – honour, a key pillar of Pahstunwali Nauroz – Afghan new year with pre-Islamic roots, celebrated on the spring equinox (March 21) NGO – Non-Governmental Organisation Northern Alliance – coalition of anti-Taliban Afghan forces, dominated by Panjshiri Tajiks; also called the

United Front

Oxus – historic name of Amu Darya River

pakul – flat pancake-shaped hat Pashto – second language of Afghanistan, spoken by

Pashtuns

Pashtun – dominant ethnic group of Afghanistan, divided into two main branches, the Durrani and Ghilzai Pashtunistan – Pashtun tribal region spanning the Afghan–Pakistan border Pashtunwali – Pashtun tribal code pattu – the woollen blanket carried by many Afghan men PCO – Public Call Office; for making telephone calls PDPA – People’s Democratic Part of Afghanistan; former ruling communist party, divided into opposing Khalq and

Parcham factions

pir – holy man; given to the head of a Sufi order pirhan tonban – traditional male clothes, of knee- length shirt and baggy trousers PRT – Provincial Reconstruction Team pulao – Afghan meal of rice with meat or vegetables

qala – fort qawwali – Islamic devotional singing qazi – Judge overseeing Islamic law Qizilbash – Turkic Shiite ethnic group living in Kabul Quran – the holy book of Islam; also spelt Koran

Ramazan – Islamic holy month of sunrise-to-sunset fasting; referred to as Ramadan outside Afghanistan rebab – short-necked lute; the Afghan national instrument

Safavid – Persian dynasty ruling west and southern Afghanistan in 16th to 18th centuries samovar – tea/hot water urn found in chaikhanas sayyid – descendent of the Prophet Mohammed sefarat – embassy or consulate shah – king shahid – martyr shahr – town or city

shalwar kameez – see pirhan tonban

sharia – Islamic law, derived primarily from the Quran and Hadith Shiite – minority Muslim sect shura – Muslim consultative council Sufi – follower of Islamic mysticism Sufism – Islamic mysticism Sunni – Muslim sect; dominant worldwide and in Afghanistan suzani – traditional Uzbek embroidery of wool or silk on cotton cloth

Tajik – second-largest ethnic group in Afghanistan takht – throne; also raised platform for seating in a chaikhana talib – religious student Taliban – Pashtun Islamist political movement that ruled Afghanistan from the mid-1990s to 2001 tangi – gorge tareyak – see khanka tariqah – Sufi order or brotherhood tashnab – toilet

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GLOSSARY 235

teppe – hill Thuraya – brand of satellite phone Timurid – Central Asian empire of the 14th to15th centuries, ruling Afghanistan from Samarkand and Herat tofan – gun Tribal Areas – primarily Pashtun autonomous areas of North West Frontier Province and Baluchistan in Pakistan that border Afghanistan Turkmen – minority ethnic group concentrated in the northwest of Afghanistan

Ulema – collection of Muslim scholars and clergy; traditional arbiters of sharia UNAMA – UN Assistance Mission to Afghanistan; umbrella body for all UN agencies in Afghanistan UNHAS – UN Humanitarian Air Service

United Front – see Northern Alliance

UXO – Unexploded Ordnance Uzbek – minority ethnic group concentrated in the northwest of Afghanistan

Wahabbi – conservative and literalist Muslim orthodoxy from Saudi Arabia Wakhi – ethnic group living in the Wakhan Corridor wat – street watan – country, homeland White Huns – nomadic group that settled in Afghanistan around AD 400 and carved the Bamiyan Buddha statues Wolesi Jirga – House of the People; the lower house of the Afghan parliament and primary law-makers

zakat – charitable donation; the third pillar of Islam ziarat – shrine zikr – Sufi devotional ritual, often involving music and recitation of the names of Allah

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