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233

Glossary

ab – water ACBAR – Agency Coordinating Body for Afghan Relief Afghani – currency of Afghanistan Aimaq – Dari-speaking nomads of central and western Afghanistan Allah – God amir – chieftan or nobleman amu – river ANA – Afghan National Army ANP – Afghan National Police ANSO – Afghan NGO Security Office asalaam aleikum – Muslim greeting, literally ‘peace be with you’; the usual response is wa aleikum salaam (and peace be with you too). Ashura – Muslim holiday particularly celebrated by Shiites, marking the death of Hussein at Karbala in AD 680. atan – national dance of Afghanistan ATO – Afghan Tourist Organisation azan – Muslim call to prayer

Bactria – ancient name for northern Afghanistan, centred on Balkh badgir – traditional tower built on roofs in semidesert regions, to funnel in breezes bagh – garden baksheesh – donation, tip or bribe bala hissar – ‘high fortress’, citadel and traditional seat of royal power bandar – port beg – landlord, gentleman bukhari – room heater burqa – enveloping veil worn by many Afghan women buzkashi – traditional pololike game of northern Afghanistan, played with a headless goat carcass

caravanserai – basic accommodation for travelling traders chaderi – see burqa chai – tea; can be either green (chai sabz) or black

(chai siah)

chaikhana – teahouse chapan – long-sleeved silk coat worn in northern Afghanistan charahi – crossroads or roundabout charas – marijuana chowk – crossroads or town square chowkidar – caretaker, night watchman commandan – leader of local militia

daff – flat-framed drum, often played to accompany Sufi rituals daftar – office Dari – national language of Afghanistan, also referred to as Farsi darya – river dasht – desert Deobandism – Indian anticolonialist school of Muslim teaching, a large influence on Taliban ideology dotar – long-necked lute Durand Line – border between Afghanistan and Pakistan, imposed in1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand

falang – large minibus (from the term ‘flying coach’) Farsiwan – Dari-speaking Shiites from northwest Afghanistan feringhee – foreigner, see also khareji

gilim – woven carpet ghazal – sung verses of poetry Ghaznavid – Turkic-Afghan empire ruled from Ghazni, 10th to12th centuries AD Ghorid – 12th century Afghan empire, founded by Alaud- din ‘the World Burner’ gombad – dome or domed monument Graeco-Bactrian – Hellenistic kingdoms and culture in north Afghanistan following conquest by Alexander the Great Great Game – geopolitical ‘Cold War’ of territorial expansion between imperial Russia and Britain in 19th century Central Asia

Hadith – collected acts and sayings of the Prophet Mohammed haj – the pilgrimage to Mecca, to be made by devout Muslims at least once during their lifetime haji – honorific title denoting someone who has per- formed the haj hammam – bathhouse Hazara – Shiite ethnic group of Mongol descent from central Afghanistan hazrat – honorific title meaning ‘holy’ Hejira – the flight of the Prophet Mohammed and his followers from Mecca to Medina in AD 622 (taken as the start of the Islamic calendar) Hezb-e Islami – Party of Islam; largely Pashtun funda- mentalist party, founded by Islamist Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Hezb-e Wahdat – Party of Islamic Unity; Hazara- dominated Shiite political party hijab – Muslim woman’s veil or headscarf (literally ‘modest dress’)

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