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Sector 4. The Kiribati Islands to the Marshall Islands

4.3 Rional Reef (17°16'N., 177°16'E.), Rene Reef

(16°44'N., 179°00'E.), and Schjetman Reef (16°08'N., 178°56'W.) were searched for in 1923 and were not found within a radius of 20 miles of their assigned positions. Schjet- man Reef and the unnamed reef lying 40 miles ENE were searched for in 1963, but were not located.

On July 24, 1945, sonar ranging gear gave distinct echoes of a suspected shoal or reef at position 16°25'N, 178°22'W. A vessel reported (1944) sighting a suspected shoal in

4.3 4.3

position 14°30'N, 179°02'W. The discolored water covered an area 9 by 23m, and was estimated to be from 9.1 to 14.6m in depth.

4.3

A shoal, the existence of which is doubtful, is shown on the

chart at position 13°33'N, 170°24'W. In 1946, a vessel reported finding no indication of shoaling in this position.

4.3

Shoals, the existence of which is doubtful, are shown on the

chart at position 10°00'N, 179°40'W and position 10°00'N, 179°30'E. Several old reports assign the following positions to dangers in this locality: a. 10°00'N, 180°00'. b. 10°00'N, 179°21'W. c. 10°00'N, 179°21'E. d. 10°00'N, 179°30'E. e. 10°00'N, 179°15'E.

4.3

Wilder Shoal (8°17'N., 173°25'W.) is reported to be about

30m in diameter, with an approximate depth over the shoal of about 5.5m.

The Kiribati Islands (Phoenix Islands)

4.4 The Kiribiti Islands (Phoenix Islands) are a group

comprised of Canton Island, Enderbury Island, Phoenix Island, Birnie Island, Orona Atoll (Hull Island), Manra Atoll (Syney Island), McKean Island, and Nikumaroro Atoll (Gardner Island). The Kiribati Islands, including Canton Island and Enderbury Island, became independent on July 12, 1979 to form part of the Republic of Kiribati.

4.4

The group lies about 1,230 miles S of Johnston Atoll. The

islands on atolls are low and of coral formation, surrounded by fringing reefs which in most cases are steep-to. With the ex- ception of the atolls, the islands are almost devoid of vege- tation, and navigation in their vicinity at night is dangerous due to the difficulty of distinguishing them.

4.4

Phoenix Island (3°43'S., 170°43'W.) is a treeless, triangular,

coral atoll surrounded, except for the middle third of the W or longest side, by a wide platform reef. The reef bares at LW. Depths of less than 9.1m are found within 0.25 mile of the SE and NE sides. Shoals, which break heavily, extend about 0.4 mile off the NW end of the island. The land rim is about 4.9m high, 30m inshore from the reef. The first rise is covered with loose coral fragments washed in from the sea. The island is uninhabited. It is a wildlife sanctuary. Phoenix Island has been reported to give good radar returns up to 11 miles.

Winds—Weather.—Winds are always E. Usually, they vary from ENE to ESE, with the latter predominating. Tides—Currents.—The current sets strongly past the N and

4.4 4.4

S points of the island, converging on the W side. Close in to the shore on the W side of the island, the flood sets N and the ebb sets S. Offshore, the set is W about 0.5 knot, varying in

Pub. 126

strength and direction with the surface currents set up by the prevailing wind.

4.5 Enderbury Island (3°08'S., 171°05'W.) is a coral is-

land consisting of a rim averaging 3.9m high, with a sunken central plain about 1.2m above sea level. The island is steep-to, with a very short reef which makes landing difficult because of the strong sweep of the undertow on the shelving shore. The shelf extends only about 68.5m and drops off rapidly except at the N and SE corners.

4.5

Winds—Weather.—The winds vary from the NE to SE.

There are frequent, but usually brief rain squalls and they can- not be depended on as the sole water supply.

4.5

Tides—Currents.—Immediately W of the island, the cur-

rent sets to the S with a strength of about 1 knot. In very strong flood tides this set may be reversed. Clear of the island, to the N or S, the average set is about 0.8 knot in a 255° direction. Aspect.—A mast, marked by red obstruction lights, exists

4.5

about 0.8 mile S of the N extremity. The most conspicuous ob- jects on the island are several palms at the N end; a large guano heap, about 6.1m high on the W side; and the buildings of the settlement at the S part of the island.

4.5

Anchorage.—During the season of the Southeast Trades,

there is opportunity to anchor on the spit off the NE point, in depths of 45 to 55m, coral and sand. The anchorage should be approached slowly from the WNW with constant use of the depth sounder, as the spit is very narrow and may be overrun easily.

The observed set of the current at this anchorage is to the NW, which keeps the stern away from the shore.

4.5

Anchorage here is not recommended when the Northeast Trades are blowing.

4.5 4.5

Directions.—The landing place is on the W side of the is-

land, just N of the settlement. Ships may approach the island to within less than 0.8 mile at this point. Landing may be affected by a surfboat through a channel in the reef leading in on a range of two beacons, in line bearing 092°. Great care must be used in landing as the reef is short and steep, and the channel is narrow with rapid shoaling toward the landing. The best land- ing conditions prevail at HW and with a strong E wind, which flattens the swell that usually sets in from the S.

4.6 Canton Island (Kanton) (2°50'S., 171°43'W.) (World

Port Index No. 56025) is located about 35 miles WNW of the NW extremity of Enderbury Island. It is a coral atoll, enclosing a large lagoon studded with coral heads, and crossed by numerous barrier reefs. As an atoll, it is unique in that the land rim is unbroken except for two openings on the W side. The surf breaks on the N extremity; off the S extremity, heavy tide rips extend about 0.5 mile from the weather side of the island. The lagoon is infested with shark, moray eel, and ray.

4.6

Winds—Weather.—The prevailing winds 90 per cent of the

year are E, ranging from ENE to ESE, with an average velocity of 12 to 15 knots and moderate seas. High winds, 25 to 30 knots, and rough seas are infrequently experienced during the months of April, May, and June. During heavy weather, vessels have been held up from entering or leaving the harbor for periods of 2 to 3 days, occasionally extending to 5 days. Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108  |  Page 109  |  Page 110  |  Page 111  |  Page 112  |  Page 113  |  Page 114  |  Page 115  |  Page 116  |  Page 117  |  Page 118  |  Page 119  |  Page 120  |  Page 121  |  Page 122  |  Page 123  |  Page 124  |  Page 125  |  Page 126  |  Page 127  |  Page 128  |  Page 129  |  Page 130  |  Page 131  |  Page 132  |  Page 133  |  Page 134  |  Page 135  |  Page 136  |  Page 137  |  Page 138  |  Page 139  |  Page 140  |  Page 141  |  Page 142  |  Page 143  |  Page 144  |  Page 145  |  Page 146  |  Page 147  |  Page 148  |  Page 149  |  Page 150  |  Page 151  |  Page 152  |  Page 153  |  Page 154  |  Page 155  |  Page 156  |  Page 157  |  Page 158  |  Page 159  |  Page 160  |  Page 161  |  Page 162  |  Page 163  |  Page 164  |  Page 165  |  Page 166  |  Page 167  |  Page 168  |  Page 169  |  Page 170  |  Page 171  |  Page 172  |  Page 173  |  Page 174  |  Page 175  |  Page 176  |  Page 177  |  Page 178  |  Page 179  |  Page 180  |  Page 181  |  Page 182  |  Page 183  |  Page 184  |  Page 185  |  Page 186  |  Page 187  |  Page 188  |  Page 189  |  Page 190  |  Page 191  |  Page 192  |  Page 193  |  Page 194  |  Page 195  |  Page 196  |  Page 197  |  Page 198  |  Page 199  |  Page 200  |  Page 201  |  Page 202  |  Page 203  |  Page 204  |  Page 205  |  Page 206  |  Page 207  |  Page 208  |  Page 209  |  Page 210  |  Page 211  |  Page 212  |  Page 213  |  Page 214  |  Page 215  |  Page 216  |  Page 217  |  Page 218  |  Page 219  |  Page 220  |  Page 221  |  Page 222  |  Page 223  |  Page 224  |  Page 225  |  Page 226  |  Page 227  |  Page 228  |  Page 229  |  Page 230  |  Page 231  |  Page 232  |  Page 233  |  Page 234  |  Page 235  |  Page 236  |  Page 237  |  Page 238  |  Page 239  |  Page 240  |  Page 241  |  Page 242  |  Page 243  |  Page 244  |  Page 245  |  Page 246  |  Page 247  |  Page 248  |  Page 249  |  Page 250  |  Page 251  |  Page 252  |  Page 253  |  Page 254  |  Page 255  |  Page 256  |  Page 257  |  Page 258  |  Page 259  |  Page 260  |  Page 261  |  Page 262  |  Page 263  |  Page 264  |  Page 265  |  Page 266  |  Page 267  |  Page 268  |  Page 269  |  Page 270  |  Page 271  |  Page 272  |  Page 273  |  Page 274  |  Page 275  |  Page 276  |  Page 277  |  Page 278  |  Page 279  |  Page 280  |  Page 281  |  Page 282  |  Page 283  |  Page 284  |  Page 285  |  Page 286  |  Page 287  |  Page 288  |  Page 289  |  Page 290  |  Page 291  |  Page 292  |  Page 293  |  Page 294  |  Page 295  |  Page 296  |  Page 297  |  Page 298  |  Page 299  |  Page 300  |  Page 301  |  Page 302  |  Page 303  |  Page 304  |  Page 305  |  Page 306  |  Page 307  |  Page 308  |  Page 309  |  Page 310
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