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Sector 2. The Line Islands, the Cook Islands, the Samoa Islands, and the Tonga Islands

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Hakau Mama’o (21°00'S., 175°13'W.) is a coral reef lying

about 7 miles NE of Niu Aunofo. It seldom dries, but the breakers on it are always visible.

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Monro Rock is a small, coral head, with a depth of 7.3m,

located about 1.5 miles NE of the light structure on Hakau Mama’o. A shoal, with a least depth of 8.5m, lies 1 mile NNW of Monro Rock.

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Atata is a wooded island, 36m high to the tops of the trees,

about 4 miles ENE of Niu Aunofo; it lies at the NE end of an extensive reef.

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Malinoa, a low sandy islet 15.5m high, lies 7 miles E of

Atata. Telemachus Reef, with a least depth of 3.7m, lies 2 miles NW of Malinoa; the sea breaks on the reef.

Nuku’alofa (21°08'S., 175°12'W.)

World Port Index No. 55590 2.50 Nuku’alofa, the principal town of the Tonga Islands,

is the residence of the Ruler and the Government; it is a port of entry. This is a natural coastal harbor protected by reefs, but open to N winds. The alongside berths may become untenable for small vessels, forcing them to anchor out.

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Winds—Weather.—Nearly 60 per cent of the winds are

from the SE to E. During May to August, when SE winds are in their ascendancy, the E wind components are in considerable part replaced by S, SW, and NW winds. About 24 per cent of the annual winds are from the NE and S, about equally divided between the two directions. The December wind speed is 10 knots; from May to July the wind speed is about 7 knots. From May to November, the strongest winds are generally

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experienced from the SSE to ESE, usually accompanied by rain from these quarters, lasting up to 3 days. When the wind shifts to the NE, good weather may be expected for a time. After September, strong NW winds with thick dirty weather

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and heavy rains may occasionally be expected, but the wind does not appear to remain longer than 12 hours in that quarter, and will probably shift to the S and clear up.

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From December to April, the winds are generally E, but

sudden and violent W and NW squalls are common. An aver- age year brings about 3 days of gales.

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Typhoons may be experienced from December to March. Tides—Currents.—The spring range at Nuku’alofa is

1.2m. In Ava Lahi, the principal approach, a W set will usually be encountered, the force and direction varying with the pre- vailing E winds. The strength of this current is greater N of Malinoa, and decreases farther S.

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In Piha Passage, the tidal currents set E and W, with slack

water occurring about 2 hours 30 minutes after HW or LW at Nuku’alofa. Within the narrows slack water usually occurs about 3 hours after HW or LW, but the wind has a considerable affect on this. Currents through this area have been reported as irregular, with maximum rates of about 4 knots.

At Queen Salote Wharf, the surface current flows to the W; however, at a depth of 5.5m a countercurrent tends to the E. Depths—Limitations.—Two major passages lead to the

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harbor area at Nuku’alofa. Ava Lahi Passage to the N was swept (1942) to a depth of 12m, and is indicated in green on the chart. Ava Lahi is larger and deeper than Piha Passage to the E. A maximum draft of 10.3m can be accommodated in the

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harbor. Ava Lahi Passage has a series of ranges to guide vessels when entering the harbor.

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Vuna Wharf consist of a T-shaped jetty and extends to the

edge of the fringing reef in front of the Government buildings. The berth is 60m in length, and will accept a vessel with a draft of 6.7m. Two wrecks covered by 5.7m and 13.2m of water lie, respectively, 92m and 185m to the SE of the extremity of Vuna Wharf.

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Queen Salote Wharf, 1 mile E of the Vuna Wharf, consists

of four numbered berths. Berth No. 1 is about 90m in length, with a depth of 12.2m alongside; this berth works containers and general cargoes. Berth No. 2 is 110m long, with a depth of 10m alongside, and can handle container, tanker, ro-ro, and general cargoes. Berth No. 3 is 100m long, with a depth of 7m alongside and handles local trade. Berth No. 4 is 60m in length. Dredged boat harbors lie on either side of Queen Salote Wharf and are best seen on the chart.

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Aspect.—The flagstaff at the root of the pier is reported to be

prominent from the entrance of Ava Lahi. The palace and royal chapel are wooden structures situated near the foreshore. Conspicuous radio masts and tanks are situated 0.5 mile and 1.4 miles ESE, respectively, of the root of the town jetty. A radio mast high is situated 0.8 mile ESE of the tanks.

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Pilotage.—Pilotage is compulsory for merchant vessels and

should be ordered at least 24 hours in advance. Vessels may also request advice on the best time to transit the entrance channels. Pilots will board vessels using Ava Lahi, about 2.5 miles NE of Hakau Mama’o (outer boarding location) or in position 21°03.5'S, 175°12.9'W (inner boarding location). Ves- sels less than 137m in length drawing less than 5.5m board the pilot for Piha Passage 2.8 miles E of the Narrows.

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Signals.—The pilot station may be contacted on 2182 kHz

or VHF channel 12 or 16. The pilot vessel may be contacted 1 hour before arrival.

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Anchorage.—The anchorage is clear of dangers, except for

three reefs, which dry from 0.3 to 0.6m. They lie 0.5 mile NE, 0.9 mile NNW, and 1.8 miles N of the root of the pier. Large vessels may anchor, in 27m, SE of the reef Ualanga Uta, about 0.6 mile N of the pier head.

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During the typhoon season, more shelter and better holding

ground will be found in the bight E of Queen Salote Wharf pier head.

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Caution.—A wreck, with a depth of 11.6m, lies about 0.5 mile

SW of Paugaimotu Islet; a special spherical buoy is moored close to it. A wreck covered by 10.4m of water is situated at 0.3 mile to the SW of the same islet.

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Mariners are cautioned to the presense of shoals just W of the

pilot boarding area for Ava Lahi Passage. Shoals exist over a considerable area to the NE of Tongatapu.

A 9.1m shoal, and a shoal with a depth of 12.8m, lie about 17.5 miles and 3.5 miles NNE, respectively, of Malinoa Light. Dido Shoal (20°55'S., 175°00'W.), about 13 miles N of Mui

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Hopohoponga, has a least charted depth of 7.3m; it breaks in moderate weather.

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Hyane Shoal, a small coral patch with a least depth of 7.3m,

lies about 5 miles WSW of Dido Shoal. A similar shoal lies 1.5 miles W of Hyane Shoal.

Caution should be exercised when navigating in this area. A submarine volcano, which is occasionally active, is lo- cated 17 miles NW of Niu Aunofo. A depth of 13.7m was ob-

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