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Sector 10. Micronesia, Palau, and Guam

cannot be approached during the NE trades due to the high seas.

10.24

Vessels with a draft of 4.6m occasionally enter the lagoon

and anchor. Entry should be made under favorable conditions, and only with local knowledge. Vessels enter by keeping close to the reef on the N side of the pass.

10.25 Pulusuk (6°42'N., 149°18'E.), an island on the S end

of Manila Reef, is low and densely wooded. A fringing reef extends about 90m from the E side and 0.15 mile from the W side. Shoal ground, as defined by the 5.5m curve, extends 0.25 mile NE from the N end of the island.

10.25

Manila Reef (6°59'N., 149°02'E.) consists of two detached

submerged reefs, together extending about 30 miles in a NNW and opposite direction, with a depth of about 165m between them. The shallowest part, at the NW end, was reported to have depths of 2.7 to 5m, but there may be places where it dries at LW. Discolored water is found over the entire reef and, with the exception of this shoal part and that surrounding Pulusuk, depths of 9.1m or over were found everywhere.

A shoal, about 0.5 mile in diameter and with depths of 1.8m or less, was reported to lie S of the NW end of Manila Reef. Tides—Currents.—The W tidal current is reported to have

10.25 10.25

a velocity of 1.5 knots, about 0.5 mile W of the N end of Pulu- suk. The E tidal current had a velocity of 0.8 knot off the N side of the island, and a velocity of 1.5 knots 0.3 mile from the S end.

10.26 Lady Elgin Bank (6°18'N., 149°28'E.) appears to be

an incomplete atoll. It has a least depth of 7.3m over its E side and 9.1m over its W extremity. Breakers have been reported on this shoal bank.

10.26

Helene Shoal (5°30'N., 149°15'E.) has a least depth of 8.8m

over its W end and 10m over its E end. Breakers have been re- ported on this shoal.

10.26

Gray Feather Bank (8°00'N., 148°47'E.) is an extensive

bank that takes the form of a submerged atoll. It has a least depth of 11m at its W extremity, 14.6 to 37m on its outer rim, and from 39 to 70m within.

Shin-Matsuye Bank, with depths of 14.6 to 40m, lies close W of the W extremity of Gray Feather Bank.

10.26 10.26

Mogami Bank (8°30'N., 148°45'E.), an extensive bank

separated from the N side of Gray Feather Bank by a very deep passage, has a least depth of 11m over its W edge. At the E and W entrances of the passage, there are two small banks with least depths of 18.3m and 22m, respectively. Mogami Bank has the shape of a submerged atoll, with charted depths of 11 to 37m on the outer rim and 33 to 53m within.

10.26

Caution.—Vessels should only attempt to cross these banks

under favorable conditions of light, as shoals other than those charted may exist. Breakers are rarely seen on the above- mentioned banks. Under favorable conditions of light, their E edges can be made out. The W edges are hard to discern at depths of more than 20m.

Micronesia West of 148°E

10.27 Winds—Weather.—From November through May,

NE and E winds prevail 78 per cent of the time, with an aver- age velocity of 10 to 12 knots. In June, winds are mostly from

279

the NE, but begin veering toward the E during the latter half of the month; velocities average 10 knots. From July through September, S winds prevail with velocities averaging 8 knots, and calms occur 6 per cent of the time. During this period are occasional brief periods of squally weather. In October, winds begin backing toward the E with SE being the prevailing direction; velocities average 10 knots.

10.27

The winds at Ulithi Atoll consist of the Northeast Trades,

which blow from late November to May, with greatest force from December to February. In May through July the wind is E and long periods of calm occur. From the end of July to the end of September, the Southwest Monsoon prevails. From Septem- ber to November calms occur. Typhoons are known in this area. In a typical year, six of ten typhoons that passed between Guam and the Republic of Palau passed to the N of Ulithi Atoll. Two passed directly over the atoll and the remaining two passed to the S of the atoll.

10.27

From November through March E winds generally prevail.

From April through June, and Septem-ber through October, winds are NE to SE and are comparatively calm. In July and August, the wind direction is changeable; S winds come up quickly and die away in one night. A shifting from N to W is said to be a sign of bad weather.

10.27

The doldrums belt oscillates back and forth over the Yap

Islands area from July through September, being the principal climatic control during this period. The Northeast Trades are predominant from November through May.

10.27

The Northeast Trades are best established in January, when

NE or E winds blow 89 per cent of the time, with an average velocity of 6 knots, and occasionally exceeding 25 knots. The trades prevail from February through May, with a gradual de- crease in frequency to 68 per cent in May, and with a slight de- crease in velocities.

10.27

During June, the trades weaken, and winds veer toward the

SE. In July through September, light variable winds, mostly with a S component, and frequent calms are prevalent; strong and gusty winds occur with brief periods of squally weather. In October, light SW winds prevail, although NE and E winds are almost as frequent. The Northeast Trades reestablish during November and December.

10.27

Gales average one a month in March, and may occur occa-

sionally at other times. Velocities during the entire year are somewhat higher over the open sea.

10.27

In the Woleai Atoll area, precipitation is heaviest from June

through October, when it averages 300mm per month and is primarily heavy showers. The drier season is from January through March with a monthly average of 150 to 160mm. In November, April, and May, rainfall averages 180mm. The number of rainy days varies from 15 in January to 22 in July.

Ulithi Atoll has the heaviest rainfall, with 380mm in January. December, with 128mm, is the month with the least rainfall. In general, precipitation is greatest during calms. There is a distinct seasonal variation at the Yap Islands, the

10.27 10.27

wettest season being from July through September, with an average of 150mm per month. Heavy rains are most frequent during the early morning.

10.27

The driest season is February through March, when the

monthly average is 135mm. The rain during these months is usually of the shower type.

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