This page contains a Flash digital edition of a book.
267

SECTOR 10

MICRONESIA, PALAU, AND GUAM

10.0

Plan.—This sector describes the Federated States of Micro-

nesia (FSM), formerly the Caroline Islands, from E to W, then the Republic of Palau, followed by the island of Guam.

General Remarks

10.1 The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), formerly

the Caroline Islands, was part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The FSM consists of four states (island groups); from the far W there is Yap State, Chuuk State, Phonpei State, while on the far E is Kosrae State.

10.1

The FSM contains hundreds of islands and atolls; although,

about 40 are of significant size and few of those are unin- habited. All the above four states lie between 4°N and 10°N, and between of 137°E and 164° E.

10.1

The islands of the FSM vary geographically from high

mountain islands to low, coral atolls; volcanic outcrops eject on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Chuuk. The state capital is Kolonia, on Pohnpei; a new capital is under development, about 5.5 miles SW in the Palikir Valley.

Some lagoons in the atolls of the FSM afford sheltered an- chorage and have entrances sufficiently deep for large vessels; other atolls are without openings, or may have entrances suitable only for small craft. Many of the harbors are deep, but have inadequate turning room.

10.1 10.1

The Republic of Palau (7°30'N., 134°35'E.), at the W end of

the FSM, consists of eight islands of significant size and numerous smaller islands. The Republic of Palau is an in- dependent state, in free association with the United States. The United States and the Republic of Palau formally entered into a Compact of Free Association, whereby Palau is a self-govern- ing republic, with the United States maintaining responsibility for Palau’s defense.

10.1

The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands con-

sists of 13 islands; they extend N from Rota to Farallon de Pajaros, and the off-lying areas to the E of the chain including Stingray Shoal, Pathfinder Reef, and Arakane Reef, and are a U.S. possession. The Marianas Group consists of a chain of steep volcanic islands extending in a N-S direction for a distance of 380 miles. Guam is the southernmost, largest, and most populous island.

10.1

Depths between the islands and the reefs of the Caroline

Islands are generally between 1,800m and 3,600m, but an in- creasing number of seamounts are detected and reported as rising from these depths, with their peaks ranging from a few meters to several hundred meters below surface.

10.1

The Mariana Trench, with the deepest recorded soundings

lie along the S end and E side of the Mariana Islands, is over 1000 miles long with an average width of about 40 miles. The Magellan Seamount Group lies to the E from the N end of the Mariana Trench; the group extends in an E-W direction. The Yap Trench and the Palau Trench are deep trenches lying along the E sides of the Yap and Palau groups. These

10.1

trenches are about 450 miles and 250 miles long, respectively, and have an average width of 25 miles.

10.1

Winds—Weather.—Frequent rain occurs in all months in

the East Caroline Islands. The Truk Islands average 3,200mm annually with a maximum of 270mm per month occurring in July and August, and a minimum of 135mm in January. Janu- ary, February, and March show average rainfall somewhat un- der 255mm per month. Thunderstorms are quite common be- tween May and October. In the Pohnpei Island and Kosrae Is- land area, rainfall averages 240 to 510mm per month through- out the year.

10.1

Much rain occurs throughout the year in the West Caroline

Islands, but there is a definite increase between May and October. Thunderstorms are fairly common from June to November. Rain occurs at all seasons in the Palau Island area, but is at a

10.1

minimum during the period of the Northeast Monsoon. Squally conditions appear to occur more frequently from November to January, as the Northeast Monsoon is gradually established against the variable S to E drift of preceding months. Thunder- storms are rare from January to April, and fairly common from May through August.

10.1

At Palau Island, 4,400mm of rain normally occurs annually,

with 510mm in July and slightly over 150mm in March. Rain- fall is somewhat lighter over the open sea. Precipitation occurs on about 50 per cent of the days from February through April, and on approximately 75 per cent during July through Septem- ber. The heaviest rains occur during the early morning with a secondary maximum soon after sunset.

In the Mariana Islands, the rainy season attends the summer monsoon, at which time thunderstorms are fairly common. Typhoons occur on the average of five times a month in the

10.1 10.1

western North Pacific during the month of September. July, August, and October have almost as many. Two-thirds of all typhoons of this area occur during these four months. Ty- phoons are least frequent during the month of February. They average about one per month for the entire western North Pacific Ocean.

10.1

It appears that most of the typhoons of the western North

Pacific form to the W of 150°E longitude. An occasional ty- phoon occurs farther to the E.

10.1

Typhoons rarely occur in the East Caroline Islands. Two or

three a year, however, either invade, or pass slightly to the N of the West Caroline Islands. The normal typhoon path is S of Republic of Palau during the period from March to June, and again in November and December.

10.1

The part of the West Caroline Islands, including the Repub-

lic of Palau and the Mariana Islands, which lies N of the paral- lel of 5°N is a region of great typhoon frequency.

Typhoons sometime occur in the Yap Island area, usually in May and June, or in the last three months of the year.

10.1 10.1

An average of two typhoons affect the Palau Island area

annually. A considerable number originate in or near the West Caroline Islands. The diameters are small.

Pub. 126 Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64  |  Page 65  |  Page 66  |  Page 67  |  Page 68  |  Page 69  |  Page 70  |  Page 71  |  Page 72  |  Page 73  |  Page 74  |  Page 75  |  Page 76  |  Page 77  |  Page 78  |  Page 79  |  Page 80  |  Page 81  |  Page 82  |  Page 83  |  Page 84  |  Page 85  |  Page 86  |  Page 87  |  Page 88  |  Page 89  |  Page 90  |  Page 91  |  Page 92  |  Page 93  |  Page 94  |  Page 95  |  Page 96  |  Page 97  |  Page 98  |  Page 99  |  Page 100  |  Page 101  |  Page 102  |  Page 103  |  Page 104  |  Page 105  |  Page 106  |  Page 107  |  Page 108  |  Page 109  |  Page 110  |  Page 111  |  Page 112  |  Page 113  |  Page 114  |  Page 115  |  Page 116  |  Page 117  |  Page 118  |  Page 119  |  Page 120  |  Page 121  |  Page 122  |  Page 123  |  Page 124  |  Page 125  |  Page 126  |  Page 127  |  Page 128  |  Page 129  |  Page 130  |  Page 131  |  Page 132  |  Page 133  |  Page 134  |  Page 135  |  Page 136  |  Page 137  |  Page 138  |  Page 139  |  Page 140  |  Page 141  |  Page 142  |  Page 143  |  Page 144  |  Page 145  |  Page 146  |  Page 147  |  Page 148  |  Page 149  |  Page 150  |  Page 151  |  Page 152  |  Page 153  |  Page 154  |  Page 155  |  Page 156  |  Page 157  |  Page 158  |  Page 159  |  Page 160  |  Page 161  |  Page 162  |  Page 163  |  Page 164  |  Page 165  |  Page 166  |  Page 167  |  Page 168  |  Page 169  |  Page 170  |  Page 171  |  Page 172  |  Page 173  |  Page 174  |  Page 175  |  Page 176  |  Page 177  |  Page 178  |  Page 179  |  Page 180  |  Page 181  |  Page 182  |  Page 183  |  Page 184  |  Page 185  |  Page 186  |  Page 187  |  Page 188  |  Page 189  |  Page 190  |  Page 191  |  Page 192  |  Page 193  |  Page 194  |  Page 195  |  Page 196  |  Page 197  |  Page 198  |  Page 199  |  Page 200  |  Page 201  |  Page 202  |  Page 203  |  Page 204  |  Page 205  |  Page 206  |  Page 207  |  Page 208  |  Page 209  |  Page 210  |  Page 211  |  Page 212  |  Page 213  |  Page 214  |  Page 215  |  Page 216  |  Page 217  |  Page 218  |  Page 219  |  Page 220  |  Page 221  |  Page 222  |  Page 223  |  Page 224  |  Page 225  |  Page 226  |  Page 227  |  Page 228  |  Page 229  |  Page 230  |  Page 231  |  Page 232  |  Page 233  |  Page 234  |  Page 235  |  Page 236  |  Page 237  |  Page 238  |  Page 239  |  Page 240  |  Page 241  |  Page 242  |  Page 243  |  Page 244  |  Page 245  |  Page 246  |  Page 247  |  Page 248  |  Page 249  |  Page 250  |  Page 251  |  Page 252  |  Page 253  |  Page 254  |  Page 255  |  Page 256  |  Page 257  |  Page 258  |  Page 259  |  Page 260  |  Page 261  |  Page 262  |  Page 263  |  Page 264  |  Page 265  |  Page 266  |  Page 267  |  Page 268  |  Page 269  |  Page 270  |  Page 271  |  Page 272  |  Page 273  |  Page 274  |  Page 275  |  Page 276  |  Page 277  |  Page 278  |  Page 279  |  Page 280  |  Page 281  |  Page 282  |  Page 283  |  Page 284  |  Page 285  |  Page 286  |  Page 287  |  Page 288  |  Page 289  |  Page 290  |  Page 291  |  Page 292  |  Page 293  |  Page 294  |  Page 295  |  Page 296  |  Page 297  |  Page 298  |  Page 299  |  Page 300  |  Page 301  |  Page 302  |  Page 303  |  Page 304  |  Page 305  |  Page 306  |  Page 307  |  Page 308  |  Page 309  |  Page 310
Produced with Yudu - www.yudu.com